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steady-state creep stress

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By Sammy Tin
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... exhibiting the three regimes: I, primary creep; II, secondary or steady-state creep; and III, tertiary creep Increasing the stress and temperature during creep deformation will tend to extend the primary and tertiary creep regimes and reduce the duration of steady-state, secondary creep. Since tertiary...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... solidifying material, the conservation of force (steady-state equilibrium) or momentum (transient conditions) can be expressed by: (Eq 2) ∇ ⋅ σ + ρ g − ρ d v d t = 0 where σ is the stress tensor, ρ is the density, g denotes gravity, v is the velocity field, and d / dt...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... the stress level can be well below σ y ( Ref 105 ). This accounts for the interest in implant alloy SCC, since such conditions characterize the service environments of surgical implants. It has been stated ( Ref 194 ) that SCC and hydrogen stress cracking represent the two most subtle causes of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... of 1 μm thickness. The activation energy at zero stress, Q 0 , for steady-state creep in unannealed, vapor-deposited copper films is about 1.3 eV. In sputtered 1 μm thick aluminum and aluminum-1% silicon-alloy films, Q 0 is 0.56 and 1.10 eV, respectively ( Ref 2 ). The low activation-energy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... / R T ) Fig. 12 Schematic illustration of an activation barrier for slip and the effect of applied stress on skewing the barrier Steady-state creep data over many orders of magnitude of strain rate correlate very well with Eq 13 , as shown in Fig. 13 ( Ref 11 ). Fig. 13...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... dynamic recovery shows an increase in flow stress up to a steady-state value that corresponds to the development of a steady-state substructure ( Fig. 16 , curve a). The level of the steady-state value increases with strain rate and a decrease in deformation temperature. Fig. 16 (a) Stress-strain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... mercury. The fracture is predominantly intergranular with some transgranular contribution. (C.E. Price, Oklahoma State University) Fig. 33 Stress-corrosion fracture that occured by decohesion along the parting plane of an aluminum alloy forging Creep rupture is a time-dependent failure...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... external surface of the specimen by shear rupture along a relatively small shear lip. The shear lip develops as a result of the change in the state of stress, from triaxial tension to plane stress. The extent, or width, of the shear lip is dependent on the temperature at which fracture occurs; formation of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006442
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... the presence of residual stress ( Ref 8 ) and plastic deformation ( Ref 9 ). In addition, the evolution of the domain structure is affected by the previous magnetization state, the presence of direct current bias fields that may arise due to remnant flux ( Ref 10 ), the rate of magnetization ( Ref 11...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... of crack growth, da/dt , as a function of the applied stress-intensity factor, K I ( Ref 65 ). Representative data of this type are shown in Fig. 10 for several aluminum alloys ( Ref 64 ). Such presentations are similar to those for fatigue and creep crack growth, except that a more...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... describes the corrosion behavior of copper alloys in specific environments. It reviews the corrosion characteristics of copper and copper alloys in various acids, alkalis, salts, organic compounds, and gases. The article provides information on the behavior of copper alloys that is susceptible to stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005950
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... quenched component by large temperature gradients and the variation of mechanical properties with temperature. Varying cooling rates at different points lead to varying thermal contractions, which must be balanced by an internal stress state. Moreover, transformation stresses are superimposed on the local...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000619
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... diameter. Before being tested, each specimens was heat treated in the creep-test furnace, first for 1 h at 400 °C (750 °F) in hydrogen and then for 16 h at 800 °C (1470 °F) in purified helium. The testing also was done in purified helium. At low temperature or low stress, or both, the main mechanism of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... the reduction depends on the type of plastic, the molecular state of the item, and the service conditions, but reductions to one-third or less are quite common; therefore, the deficiency in the information is important. No stress-strain curve in isolation contains sufficient information on which to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... ) Fig. 7 Flow curves dependent on quenching rate for aluminum alloy 6082 where σ is true stress, φ is logarithmic plastic strain, k s is steady-state flow stress, k f is yield stress, and N and p are material parameters dependent on cooling rate and quenching finish temperature. By...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... leads to lower flow stresses than observed in isothermal experiments. Fig. 67 Effect of continuous heating or cooling on the steady-state flow stress of vacuum-melted iron. Deformed in torsion at an effective strain rate of 1.5 × 10 −3 s −1 . Source: Ref 128 Fig. 68 Effect of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... the order of 1 to 10 μm. The stress-strain curve for a metal undergoing dynamic recovery shows an increase in flow stress up to a steady-state value that corresponds to the development of a steady-state substructure ( Fig. 13 , curve a). The level of the steady-state value increases with strain rate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... steady-state scale development is often proceeded by the competitive processes of nucleation and growth of transient corrosion products dictating the mode and nature of subsequent scale growth. Equilibrium thermodynamics, although not predictive, allow an assessment of the nature of the possible...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... life to cycles to failure. Typically, these data are very expensive to obtain. Thus, it is extremely rare to find fatigue data for forging or cold heading dies in the literature. Die stress analysis is used to determine the stress level on a die during service. More than one stress state may be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... testing is generally of little value in diagnosing the subtle embrittling effects of hydrogen. Titanium alloys tend to exhibit susceptibility under biaxial or triaxial stress states; therefore, bend tests, cup tests, notched tensile, or loaded precracked fracture toughness tests are generally more...