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steady-state configuration

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... features, characteristics, and limitations of these approaches. heat conduction signal-generation mechanisms steady-state configuration surface-excited thermography thermal nondestructive evaluation thermoelastic stress analysis vibrothermography THERMAL METHODS for nondestructive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... of view while it is in contact with the surface and may require some time to apply and remove, so contact sources are usually used in steady-state configurations, where the entire part temperature is raised above ambient and the early temperature behavior immediately after heating is not critical...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... depicted in its phase 3, fully operational configuration, with components assembled from the United States, Europe, Canada, Japan, and Russia Solidification Research in Microgravity Microgravity solidification research prior to 1990 is detailed in a comprehensive ASM Handbook review by P.A...
Book Chapter

By Sammy Tin
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... from the cell interiors into low-energy configurations within the subgrain walls. The hardening function is a measure of the increase in flow stress as straining occurs. The relationship between the dislocation density during steady-state creep and the applied stress is: (Eq 14) τ = α μ b ρ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the results obtained by Volmer, Weber, Farkas, Becker, and Doring, which constitute the classical nucleation theory. These results are the predictions of the precipitate size distribution, steady-state nucleation rate, and incubation time. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and mechanical strain. Fatigue damage at high temperatures develops as a result of inelastic deformation where the strains are nonrecoverable. Therefore, TMF damage is complex, as it may accumulate over a range of temperatures and strains under both steady-state and/or transient conditions. Thermomechanical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
...Abstract Abstract This article reviews the classical models for the pseudo-steady-state temperature distribution of the thermal field around moving point and line sources. These include thick- and thin-plate models and the medium-thick-plate model. The analytical solutions to the differential...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002444
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... by solving simplified forms of the compressible flow equations. In this section, the steady-state, inviscid, and incompressible approximations are introduced, and the circumstances under which they may be used are described. The steady-state approximation is obtained simply by dropping the time...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005426
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... equations. In this section, the steady-state, inviscid, and incompressible approximations are introduced, and the circumstances under which they may be used are described. The steady-state approximation is obtained simply by dropping the time-derivative terms in Eq 1 to 3 . While solving the steady...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... In the second procedure, specimens are deformed using a testing machine that imposes a constant rate of crosshead displacement (equivalent to a true constant strain rate due to the double-shear configuration of the specimen). In this case, the steady-state flow stress is recorded for an imposed strain rate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
.... Note in Fig. 2 the common running-in behavior as the two surfaces bed into each other, followed by a period of relatively smooth sliding (known as the steady state). Such datasets provide two important results: Steady-state friction coefficient (µ) : Calculated as the average of the steady...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... ) implemented the Eulerian formulation and demonstrated its advantages ( Fig. 1 – 5 ). The spatial frame enables longer time steps to be taken as the weld approaches steady state. Transient versus Steady State In a spatial frame that is tied to the heat source, the temperature near the arc of a long weld...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001740
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... on both sides. The influx of ammonia will shift the electrolyte equilibria to the right, altering the solution pH. The pH electrode senses this change in pH, and the resulting steady-state potential can be related to the sample ammonia concentration using Eq 1 . Sensors for carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003288
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... and creep-rupture testing. The article begins with a brief review of steady state creep behavior with subsequent sections on testing equipment, constant-load testing, and constant-stress testing. However, another engineering aspect of creep behavior is stress relaxation. Stress relaxation is the reduction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005422
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... grain-size distribution also reaches a steady state ( Ref 16 , 20 , 57 ). The results ( Fig. 23 ) not only attest to a self-similar growth of the grains but also prove that the shape of the steady-state grain-size distribution is essentially independent of the 3-D network model used. This means...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001480
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... ). The spatial frame enables longer time steps to be taken as the weld approaches steady state. Transient Versus Steady State In a spatial frame that is tied to the heat source, a long weld parallel to the prismatic axis of a prismatic body soon reaches a steady state. Indeed, the Rosenthal solution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002389
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... parameters. Fig. 4 Creep zone evolution. (a) Small scale primary creep conditions. (b) Secondary zone evolving within the primary zone. (c) Secondary zone becoming comparable in size with the extensive primary zone. (d) Extensive secondary zone enveloping over the entire ligament (steady-state creep...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005592
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... by assuming steady-state conditions and thus eliminating dependence on time. The mass conservation equation (continuity equation) is given by: (Eq 1) ∇ ⋅ ( ρ v ) = 0 where ρ is the density, v is the velocity, and ∇ is the spatial gradient operator. Fig. 3 Eulerian versus...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005993
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... , θ ) k General form, constant properties, without heat source 1 a ∂ T ( r , θ ) ∂ θ = ∇ 2 T ( r , θ ) (Fourier equation) General form, constant properties, steady state ∇ 2 T ( r ) + g r k = 0 (Poisson equation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002418
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... with crack extension, Δ a ( Fig. 1 ) ( Ref 2 , 5 , 6 , 7 ). Concepts of initiation toughness, Γ 0 , steady-state toughness, ΔΓ S , and tearing index, λ, are needed to characterize this behavior. Fig. 1 A schematic of a resistance curve showing the evolution of the inelastic zones...