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statistical distribution

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003170
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Metal casting is the manufacturing method in which a metal or an alloy is melted, poured into a mold, and allowed to solidify. Typical uses of castings include municipal hardware, water distribution systems (pipes, pumps, and valves), automotive components (engine blocks, brakes...
Book Chapter

By Erhard Klar
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... toward demixing, much work has been done toward the stabilization of powder mixtures. A powder mixture is optimally mixed if its components approach a random (statistical) distribution that is free of agglomeration ( Fig. 18 ). The quality of mixing can be measured by the number of particle contacts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... from statistical sampling is much more challenging and requires the manipulation of the texture until the GBCD of the simulation matches the experimental GBCD to a given predefined tolerance ( Ref 24 ). Adding a correlation with grain-size distribution further increases the complexity of the task, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... neutron diffraction, powder diffraction, and pair distribution function analysis. The relationship between detector space and reciprocal space are presented. Various factors involved in sample preparation, calibration, and techniques used for analyzing diffraction data are described. The article also...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... reactions, filtration and washing, and powder recovery techniques. It concludes with a discussion on characterization, centering on size distribution analysis, specific surface area, density, porosity chemical composition, phase, and surface composition. ceramic powders ceramic processing additives...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003088
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., as in the example just mentioned, or it might entail complete redesign of the product. Statistical distributions model various physical, mechanical, electrical, and chemical properties, as well as the number of occurrences of events. There are seven well-known and widely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... and practice of POD as well as an understanding of the components required to perform a POD assessment. Because the determination of POD is a statistical concept and therefore is a bit different than standard engineering, it is not uncommon for misunderstandings to evolve in the application...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... ). When grinding is done with a full wheel, the statistical distribution of forces on individual grits can be estimated from a statistical analysis of grit sizes on the wheel surface. Such a calculation has recently been carried out for lapping and polishing ( Ref 20 ). There has, however, been no direct...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003060
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... thermal shock rig, no vane cracks developed. Subsequent light-off qualification and engine testing verified this design change. Thus, rig tests can be useful in sorting out design changes. As mentioned earlier, the design of ceramics is based on probabilistic methods. A statistical distribution of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... quantitative fractography is to express the characteristics of the features in the fracture surface in quantitative terms, such as the true area, length, size, spacing, orientation, and location, as well as distributions of these, as required. As will be discussed in this article, the more prominent techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... mean grain size (40 μm) as a function of applied loading cycles (lower right) for multiple statistical realizations of equiaxed polycrystalline IN 100 tructures with log normal grain size distribution. Fig. 13 Estimated distribution for fraction of grains with cracks that reach a length three...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006462
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... manufacturing inspection capability or material flaw size distribution. The growth of the flaw is predicted for service usage and will reach a critical flaw size, a f , after t 0 flight hours. The Air Force philosophy requires an inspection at half the time required for the potential crack to grow to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... should be aware of several sources of potential frustration. First, slight variations in chemistry of the ionic-covalent chemical bond that is typical of ceramics and glasses, and subtle differences in phase distribution in a ceramic are often difficult to observe but can cause major changes to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... metallurgical processes and to help reduce the investment of time and money for erimental work in research or for plant trials in production. Generally, the modeling techniques can be classified into two large groups: physical modeling and statistical modeling. Each has advantages and may be more suitable for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... the original trajectory, is called the projected range. Ion implantation is a random process, normally producing a Gaussian-shaped impurity depth profile whose centroid is defined as the average projected range, R p . The statistical nature of the scattering process gives rise to a distribution of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005438
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... (CALPHAD based) ( Ref 8 ), elastic modulus ( Ref 9 ), and distributed defect potency ( Ref 10 ). Calibration of such a complex model begins with subcalibration of the individual models from independent experimental data, such as thermodynamic T 0 temperatures, composition-dependent shear moduli, and pre...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.9781627081948
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... sut neq ( Ref 8 ). An array of electron probe point counts can be used to statistically determine solute distribution curves (such as the copper profile in Fig. 3 ) ( Ref 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 ). Composition is measured across a rectangular grid of n × m = P points, taking care...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.9781627081733
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... statistically. Excessive testing is rare. Inadequate sampling is more likely, due to physical constraints with some components and a desire to control testing costs. In the case of inclusion ratings, the testing plan was established years ago by the chart method in ASTM E 45, “Standard Methods for Determining...