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static recrystallization

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract Recrystallization is to a large extent responsible for their final mechanical properties. This article commences with a discussion on static recrystallization (SRX) and dynamic recrystallization (DRX). The DRX includes continuous dynamic recrystallization (CDRX) and discontinuous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... abnormal or discontinuous grain growth. It also examines the key mechanisms that control microstructure evolution during hot working and subsequent heat treatment. These include dynamic recovery, dynamic recrystallization, metadynamic recrystallization, static recovery, static recrystallization, and grain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract The processing of steel involves five distinct sets of texture development mechanisms, namely, austenite deformation, austenite recrystallization, gamma-to-alpha transformation, ferrite deformation, and static recrystallization during annealing after cold rolling. This article provides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article examines how cellular automaton (CA) can be applied to the simulation of static and dynamic recrystallization. It describes the steps involved in the CA simulation of recrystallization. These include defining the CA framework, generating the initial microstructure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005428
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
..., abnormal grain growth, and recrystallization. It introduces the basics of the model, providing details of the dynamics, simulation variables, boundary energy, boundary mobility, pinning systems, and stored energy. The article explains how to incorporate experimental parameters and how to validate the model...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009002
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... working and key processes that control microstructure evolution: dynamic recovery, static recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth. Some of the key phenomenological descriptions of plastic flow and microstructure evolution are also summarized. The article concludes with a discussion on the modeling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005408
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... after inhomogeneous deformation due to severe surface friction. Strong gradients in static recrystallization are clearly visible, indicating an inhomogeneous state of stored energy immediately after deformation. Fig. 8 (a) Microstructure of a cylindrical sample ( 1 4 section...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003995
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... microalloy postdynamic static recrystallization recrystallization refinement static recrystallization strain-induced transformation strength thermomechanical processing toughness THERMOMECHANICAL PROCESSING (TMP) refers to various metalforming processes that involve careful control of thermal and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... performance (e.g., strength, elastic modulus, ductility, fracture toughness) of metallic materials. Crystallographic texture, or simply texture for succinctness, may arise as a result of large-strain deformation, dynamic/static recrystallization, grain growth, or phase transformation ( Ref 1 ). A second form...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... recrystallization may be accompanied by grain growth and a less workable microstructure. Following deformation, wedge specimens are quenched or furnace annealed to determine dynamically and statically recrystallized grain sizes as functions of working temperature, amount of deformation, and annealing temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... , Ref 18 , Ref 19 ), whose work led to the JMAK, or Avrami, equation, to describe static phase transformations a function of time. The JMAK equation is readily applied to static recrystallization, for example, by treating the recrystallized grains as a new phase that grows into the initial, strained...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005414
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... finishes after deformation is complete is called static recrystallization, while recrystallization that occurs during deformation is called dynamic recrystallization. A third type of recrystallization that starts during deformation (formation of recrystallization nuclei) and undergoes completion after...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003989
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... different heat treatments that may be used individually or combined: homogenization, annealing, static recrystallization, precipitation, solutioning, and soaking. Initial reheats are often referred to as homogenization reheats, while later reheats are frequently referred to as recrystallization reheats. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... softening processes of recovery and recrystallization that take place with time after a pass. Static recovery leads to minor changes in the appearance of the dislocation structure, but these changes are sufficient to cause significant recovery (softening) of the initial flow stress for the next deformation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003971
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...) can be described as a function of the imposed strain, strain rate, and temperature. Similar models treat the evolution of grain structure during annealing following cold or hot working as a function of time due to “staticrecrystallization. In both cases, the recrystallized volume fraction typically...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... boundaries. Stacking faults play an important role in the work-hardening behavior of some fcc metals and alloys. If their width is large, the material work hardens more than if it is small. Stacking-fault energy also influences the occurrence of static or dynamic recrystallization (see Fig. 2 in the article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003999
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... flow softening. During flow softening, larger starting grains are dynamically recrystallized to form new, strain-free, smaller grains. Static recrystallization can also occur when material is held at various temperatures subsequent to deformation processing. This grain-refinement process is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... forged at the same temperature when multiple forging operations are used successively. Finally, it is important to mention the significant processes of static and dynamic recrystallization. For steel and aluminum wrought products, careful monitoring of these processes has led to better control of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... allow prediction of resultant microstructures. For superalloys, phenomenological models have been developed and implemented for the prediction of dynamic, meta-dynamic, and static recrystallization of alloys 718, Waspaloy, and René 88 ( Ref 4 , 5 , 7 ). These tools have shown great success in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003993
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... article “Dies and Die Materials for Hot Forging” in this Volume). Deformation mechanisms during hot working include microstructural processes such as: Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) Superplastic deformation Dynamic recovery Void formation Flow instability processes (such...