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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... techniques and discusses the advantages and limitations of each technique when used in failure analysis. The focus is on various types of static load testing, hardness testing, and impact testing. The testing types covered include uniaxial tension testing, uniaxial compression testing, bend testing, hardness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... variation in stress, which corresponds with static loading. The S - N curve is the basis for fatigue design and shows the relationship between a constant stress amplitude, S a (or stress range, Δ S ), and the number of cycles to failure, N . The regions of the curve can be separated into the quasi...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-corrosion cracks have formed, the gross cross-sectional stress decreases, which will eventually cause the crack to stop. Application of a constant or a static load provides an alternative test method that represents some actual field conditions that can provide threshold values. It should be cautioned...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... recrystallization (DDRX). It is important to be able to predict and quantify the rate of static recrystallization under industrial conditions, because of its effect on the flow stress and therefore on the modeling of rolling load. For this reason, it was proposed by Sellars ( Ref 17 ) that the effects of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... can be set to ensure a static tensile stress component is applied to the test specimen. As pointed out previously, under in vivo conditions, the loading applied is often unknown, and fractographic evidence may be subject to ambiguous interpretation, in certain situations, as to whether the cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... to casting, the workpiece must be scrupulously prepared by various cleaning, fluxing, and tinning steps. Babbitting of bearing shells can be accomplished by three methods, namely, static babbitting, centrifugal casting, and metal spray babbitting. babbitting bearing shells bond quality...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... that decrease static charge development and microbial activity and those that improve flame retardation characteristics, color, light stability, impact resistance, density and mechanical properties. This article focuses on the additives for polymers and elastomers that are used for improving processing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009002
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... working and key processes that control microstructure evolution: dynamic recovery, static recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth. Some of the key phenomenological descriptions of plastic flow and microstructure evolution are also summarized. The article concludes with a discussion on the modeling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006663
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... technologies for gas mass spectrometry, namely quadrupole mass filters, magnetic sector mass filters, and time-of-flight mass analyzers are covered. Common factors to consider in choosing an analyzer for static or continuous gas measurement are also described. In addition, the article presents some examples of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... projectile by deformation. Again, success or failure is determined by comparison with design expectations. The conservative, classical method of design (assuming monotonic or static loading) assumes that failure occurs whenever the stress at any point in a structure exceeds the yield strength of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003974
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... mechanical presses, variations in forging thickness due to volume or temperature changes in the stock are also smaller in a stiffer press. Very often the stiffness of a press (ton/in.) is measured under static loading conditions, but such measurements are misleading. For practical purposes, the stiffness has...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... become clear: Thermoelastic stress analysis will not work if only a static load is applied to a test article. Applying a state of pure shear to a test article will not result in a thermoelastic signal from an isotropic material. Several assumptions were made in deriving the basic thermoelastic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... practical failure investigation. The article describes the effects of mechanical loading on a part in service and provides information on laboratory fracture examination. brittle crack propagation ductile crack propagation embrittlement mixed-mode cracking overload fractures stress concentration...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Hydrogen damage is a term used to designate a number of processes in metals by which the load-carrying capacity of the metal is reduced due to the presence of hydrogen. This article introduces the general forms of hydrogen damage and provides an overview of the different types of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003971
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...) can be described as a function of the imposed strain, strain rate, and temperature. Similar models treat the evolution of grain structure during annealing following cold or hot working as a function of time due to “static” recrystallization. In both cases, the recrystallized volume fraction typically...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... However, as computing power continues to increase, so will the ability to solve even more complex problems. General-purpose FEA software programs can perform a variety of analyses, including structural and thermal, static and transient, linear and nonlinear, and more. The programs are thorough...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003060
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... low-expansion metals. The design of ceramic static components requires a different approach. In contrast to rotor-shaft attachments, which are single-point attachments where no relative ceramic-to-metal movement is experienced, attachments of ceramic static structure components to metal engine...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Abstract Titanium and its alloys have been used extensively in a wide variety of implant applications, such as artificial heart pumps, pacemaker cases, heart valve parts, and load-bearing bone or hip joint replacements or bone splints. This article discusses the properties of titanium and its...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006446
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... ). The results take advantage of the sensitivity of the acoustic nonlinearity parameter to the presence of dislocations. For example, nonlinear Lamb waves are used to track the level of plastic strain in statically loaded aluminum alloy specimens ( Ref 41 ). The increase in normalized acoustic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... understand RCF, it is first necessary to have a working knowledge of Hertzian contact theory. The general concept and equations for simple shapes is presented in many undergraduate machine design textbooks, while a more generalized version is available in Ref 4 . When a static load is applied such that two...