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static fatigue

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... mechanism. The interpretation of these cavities is further complicated by the fact that such cavities can also be formed in the absence of externally applied stress. In studies on commercially pure nickel, grain-boundary cavities have been induced by static oxidation ( Ref 12 ). These authors also found...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... variation in stress, which corresponds with static loading. The S - N curve is the basis for fatigue design and shows the relationship between a constant stress amplitude, S a (or stress range, Δ S ), and the number of cycles to failure, N . The regions of the curve can be separated into the quasi...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Fatigue ,” Failure Analysis and Prevention , Volume 11, ASM Handbook , ASM International, 2002, p 941–956. The previous section gave an overview of Hertzian contact. Hertzian contact is based on a static load, while RCF occurs in parts that undergo cyclic loading. The normalized stresses below a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... majority. The species responsible for SCC need not be present in high concentrations, however ( Ref 193 ). A static tensile stress (applied and/or residual) is necessary for SCC to occur in susceptible material/environment combinations. Often the chemical environment is apparently mild comparatively, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... to casting, the workpiece must be scrupulously prepared by various cleaning, fluxing, and tinning steps. Babbitting of bearing shells can be accomplished by three methods, namely, static babbitting, centrifugal casting, and metal spray babbitting. babbitting bearing shells bond quality...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... this article is on the various types of static load testing, hardness testing, and impact testing. Other specialized testing, such as wear testing, dynamic (high-strain-rate) testing, elevated-temperature creep/stress rupture, residual stress, fracture mechanics, and fatigue testing, are potentially...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-induced fracture involves the consideration of both material strength and damage tolerance, much as in static design. The chromium-molybdenum steels, stainless steels, and Cr-Mo-V steels, which are commonly used in high-temperature service, are considered to be creep-ductile materials with the ability to...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... FATIGUE is the progressive localized permanent structural change that occurs in a material subjected to repeated or fluctuating strains at stresses having maximum values less than the static yield strength of the material. Fatigue can culminate in cracks and cause fracture after a sufficient number of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... hardness testers, which can be either portable instruments or laboratory devices. Only static indentation and rebound testing are discussed in this article. These two methods account for virtually all routine hardness testing in the metalworking industry. Static indentation hardness testing is the more...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... dynamics of a fracture event (quasi-static versus dynamic/impact loading) In this article, the basic types of fracture processes (ductile, brittle, fatigue, and creep) are described briefly, principally in terms of fracture appearances (as sometimes affected by the microstructure). More in-depth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... illustrations. The article also describes microscopic and macroscopic features of the different fracture mechanisms with illustrations with emphasis on visual and light microscopy examination. The types of fractures considered include ductile fractures, tensile-test fractures, brittle fractures, fatigue...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... stresses to be only functions of x and y . The stress transformation technique can be illustrated easily in two dimensions by using the principles of statics. In two dimensions, only three of the six stress components are used: σ x , σ y , τ xy . These can be shown on a 2D stress element ( Fig...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... wear, lubrication and lubricated wear, and selection of steels for wear resistance. The article discusses the effect of alloying elements, composition, and mechanical properties of carbon and low-alloy steels at elevated temperatures. It talks about the fatigue resistance characteristics of steels, and...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... 436 (austenitic gray irons for heat, corrosion, and wear resistance). ASTM A 823 addresses statically cast permanent mold gray iron castings. These are classified by tensile strength, Brinell hardness, heat treatment (annealed or normalized), and whether the casting is cored or solid. When...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... shows various bone fracture reduction conditions. The best condition for the implant ( Fig. 24a ) results in compression between the ends of the fractured bone and static tensile loads in the fixation device. Although higher static tensile loads are expected in this situation, lower cyclic forces are...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... considered in selecting gray iron for parts intended for static load in direct tension or bending. Such parts include pressure vessels, autoclaves, housings, and other enclosures, valves, fittings, and levers. Depending on the uncertainty of loading, safety factors of 2 to 12 have been used in figuring...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... single mechanism exists to explain SCC in titanium alloys. Test methods for assessing the SCC resistance of titanium alloys can be grouped into three basic categories ( Ref 15 , 55 ): Category 1 tests: Use smooth, statically loaded specimens, such as U-bend, C-ring, bent beam, and dead...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... data that can be gathered includes: Material specifications Design operating conditions Length of service Temperatures and pressures Static and dynamic loading conditions Corrosive and erosive conditions Vibration and cyclic loading Testing, inspection, and maintenance...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003086
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... mechanics can be found in the Sections “Mechanical Testing” and “Failure Analysis” in this Handbook. For the static (low-strain-rate) situation, toughness can be determined from the results of a tensile stress-strain test. It is the area under the stress-strain curve up to the point of fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... compared for two superelastic wire devices, one with a passivated surface and the other oxidized. Both tests are static immersion tests performed in phosphate-buffered saline solution at 37 °C (99 °F). The nickel concentration was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Although...