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stand-off distance

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Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002158
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
.... The article reviews several variables that influence the WJM process, such as pressure, flow and nozzle diameter, stand-off distance, traverse rate, and type and size of abrasive. Advantages and disadvantages of waterjet and abrasive waterjet cutting are also discussed. The article describes the applications...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006014
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
..., and increasing stand-off distance from the work surface to avoid damaging the protective zinc surface. Steel abrasives such as steel grit should not be used. Other less aggressive blast-cleaning alternatives are sodium bicarbonate blasting (typically in conjunction with water cleaning, as described subsequently...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005715
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... should also take into account the desire to maintain a consistent torch-to-part stand-off distance. Coating properties are significantly influenced by stand-off and spray angle. Fig. 1 Thermal spray stream positions. (a) Good. (b) Acceptable. (c) Minimum acceptable. (d) Formation of porosity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... diode panel and top-side off-camera ring flash illumination A tabletop photo stand may be used in a manner similar to the photo table for smaller parts. An acrylic tabletop photo stand with side and overhead LED panel lighting is shown in Fig. 12 . The LED panel lights on a tabletop photo stand...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... Process variation, process parameters, and ambient atmosphere Substrate material, surface topography, and temperature Handling speed, angle, and stand-off distance Coating thicknesses typically vary from d Coat = 50 to 500 µm and, in individual cases, up to more than 3 mm. The thickness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... back mounted on a rigid stand. Courtesy of Nikon, Inc., and Frank Fryer Company. (b) Macroscope mounted on a rigid stand. Courtesy of Wild Heerbrugg Lens Eq 1 , 2 , 3 , and 4 show the relationships among the object-to-lens distance (object distance, S o ), the lens-to-film-plane distance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... should approximate the diameter of the tube to avoid flattening of the tube under pressure. Straightening presses are used on tubes to remove kinks, camber, and other distortions caused by mishandling, cutting off, and heat treatment. Straightening presses can also be used to reduce the out...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... resolution at a prescribed focal zone of the transducer. Large stand-off distances are possible. Can be used in through-transmission (TT) and/or pulse-echo (PE) mode. Best resolution available using focused transducers Buoyancy and loading stresses on the part must be considered. Part size, plus tooling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... and stable Good spatial resolution at a prescribed focal zone of the transducer Large stand-off distances are possible Can be used in TT and/or PE mode Best resolution available using focused transducers Buoyancy and loading stresses on the part must be considered. Part size, plus...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.9781627081900
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005853
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... change? A simple answer to that question is called the RAT theory. Figure 3 shows a piece of glass with IR energy aimed at it. (For this example, a 2 μm wavelength thermometer is used.) As it strikes the block of glass, first some of the IR energy reflects off the surface. All materials have some...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.9781627081863
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.9781627081856
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006422
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... volumes warrant it, rolling from about 100 to 25 mm (4 to 1 in.) can be carried out on several in-line mills with the slab running out between the stands (semicontinuous line). The thick strip (band) is hot rolled to a thickness of about 1.5 to 5 mm (0.06 to 0.2 in.); if quantities are large...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005868
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... Scan hardening of a large axle for off-road machinery. Source: Ref 1 Fig. 2 Single-shot induction-hardening system used for track pins. Source: Ref 1 Fig. 9 Overall view of horizontal scanning system for induction hardening precut 38 mm (1.5 in.) diameter hydraulic cylinder rods...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... machines, tooling, and auxiliary equipment used in contour roll forming and its process variables. Tooling used in roll forming includes forming rolls and dies for punching and cutting off the material. The article discusses the additional tooling required in tube mills to weld, size, and straighten...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... visible on the screen to the right of the entry point signal. Digital units will have the ability to save standard settings and data. On/off switch In addition to the preceding list, there are other controls that may or may not be provided, depending on the specific type of instrument...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006640
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., where it has been the “workhorse” for chemical analysis for approximately half a century. The spark stand essentially is a very simple device: a small enclosure where the sample (cathode) is placed on a grounded flat plate with a hole opposite to a pin-shaped electrode. A diagram of a typical spark...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... is to supply liquid metal to the mass continuously until it is frozen solid without porosity. In this process, the freezing front inside the mass must not be cut off from its feeding source before the mass is solid. Sound metal can be produced only if proper directional solidification is attained by design...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006471
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... ” in this Volume. A second noncontact modality uses lasers ( Ref 8 ) that provide a stand-off measurement capability, but this involves the use of more complex instrumentation. Laser for ultrasound generation and detection are discussed in more detail in the article “Laser-Ultrasonics—Principles and Industrial...