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stainless steel metallography

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... microscopic examination microstructures stainless steel metallography stainless steel microstructures STAINLESS STEELS are complex alloys containing a minimum of 11% Cr plus other elements to produce ferritic, martensitic, austenitic, duplex, or precipitation-hardenable grades. Procedures used to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003751
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... procedures to use. For example, an AISI 304 stainless steel will require electrolytic polishing and etching procedures, whereas an AISI/SAE 8620 steel will require conventional mechanical polishing and etching procedures. By knowing the materials to be examined, the metallographer can also bring the proper...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.../SAE 1020, 1040, and 1080. The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) and the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) developed this classification or numbering system for plain carbon, low-alloy, and stainless steels decades ago. The four-digit number describes the type of steel (three digits for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... from the core metal. Steels for nitriding—whether specially formulated for this purpose or adopted because of satisfactory performance in processing and in service—are usually medium-carbon low-alloy steels of high hardenability; stainless and tool steels can also be nitrided. Compositions of some...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... alloys, including stainless steels, cobalt-base alloys, titanium and titanium alloys, porous coatings, and emerging materials. biomedical orthopedic alloys cobalt-base alloys implantable surgical devices metallography microstructure porous coatings quality control stainless steels titanium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Stainless Steel Sheets—Effects of Impurities and Solidification Mode , Weld. J. , Vol 63 ( No. 12 ), Dec 1984 , p 369s – 375s 5. Johnson C.A. , “Metallography Principles and Procedures,” Leco Corp., St. Joseph , MI , 1977 6. Gould J.E. and Williams J.C...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003720
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract This article provides an overview of the origin of metallography. It presents information on how to select a section from a specimen and prepare it for macroscopic analysis. The article describes the macroscopic analysis of steel fracture surfaces with emphasis on ductile...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., for example, cadmium in titanium and copper in stainless steel. These cracks often are in locations where there is no stress, and manufacturing does not produce cracks of this type. Caution: The example in Fig. 19 was caused during sectioning for metallography. Fig. 19 (a) Cracks in the head...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003752
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... E. , Metallographic Reagent for the Identification of Cementite in Iron and Steel , J. Iron Steel Inst. Jpn. , Vol 203 , May 1965 , p 454 53. Beraha E. , New Metallographic Reagents for Stainless Steel and Heat-Resisting Alloys , J. Iron Steel Inst. Jpn. , Vol 204 , March...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... tensile strength. It is therefore important to recognize when the observed heterogeneity is beneficial. The pores allow carburizing and nitriding gases to penetrate the interior of a sintered steel part, resulting in less-well-defined cases on carbon steel and the nitriding of 300 series stainless steels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... Electrolytic etching Em1 Pure Co and Co-Al alloys 100 mL distilled water 5 mL HCl 32% 10 g FeCl 3 Several seconds 6 V dc Use stainless steel cathode. Em2 Stellites up to 70% Co and Co-base superalloys 100 mL distilled water 5–10 mL HCl 32% 2–10 g CrO 3 2–20 s 3 V dc Stainless steel cathode...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... steel. Only a few portions of grain boundaries are missing. Figure 7 depicts delta ferrite in a billet of 17-4 PH martensitic stainless steel revealed selectively by etching with Murakami’s reagent at ~100 °C (~210 °F). The uniform coloring of delta ferrite is ideal for image analysis phase detection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... , Inclusions and Their Influence on Materials Behavior , ASM International , Metals Park, OH , 1988 , p 35 – 48 10.1520/STP12117S 44. Vander Voort G.F. , Characterization of Inclusions in a Laboratory Heat of AISI 303 Stainless Steel , Inclusions and Their Influence on Materials Behavior...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003737
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...-resistant alloys are the same as those recommended for cast and wrought austenitic stainless steels (see the article “Metallography and Microstructures of Stainless Steels and Maraging Steels” in this Volume). Macroetchants for cast and wrought iron-nickel-, nickel-, and cobalt-base heat-resistant alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... , 45 , 47 , 48 , 49 , 52 , and 53 . Table 5 Final preparation of uranium samples for bright-field microexamination Solution Comments Electrolytic etches 1. 1 part ortho-H 3 PO 4 acid 1 part H 2 O 1–5 V open circuit (a) , stainless steel cathode 2. 5 parts ortho-H 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... alloy A/cm 2 A/in. 2 1. 825 mL H 3 PO 4 and 175 mL H 2 O 1.0–1.5 0.02–0.1 0.13–0.65 Copper 10–40 min Unalloyed copper 2. 250 mL H 3 PO 4 , 250 mL ethanol, 50 mL propanol, 500 mL distilled H 2 O, 3 g urea 3–6 0.4–0.8 2.6–5.2 Stainless steel 50 s Coppers and copper alloys 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...) potential between the sample and the solution. A 0 to 150 V dc power supply with low amperage (0.25 to 1.0 A) is required for anodization. The negative lead of the power supply should be attached to a stainless steel metal beaker, and the positive lead should contact the sample surface using a probe. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... copper-beryllium in conjunction with a stainless steel cathode, a mask of 0.5 to 1 cm 2 (0.08 to 0.16 in. 2 ) area, 20 to 30 V dc, and approximately 0.2 A. This technique is applicable to general polishing but is particularly suited to examining intermetallic phases in copper-beryllium, which can be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... 6 H 8 O 7 ⋅H 2 O) 20–25 g cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ⋅2.5H 2 O) 1000 mL distilled water Tint etch for iron, steel, cast irons, and ferritic and martensitic stainless steel. Dissolve in order shown. Allow each to dissolve before adding next. Allow to age 24 h at 20 °C (70 °F) in a dark bottle. Before...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... • Superhard Tool Materials , Properties and Selection: Stainless Steels, Tool Materials, and Special-Purpose Metals , Vol 3 , Metals Handbook , 9th ed. , American Society for Metals , 1980 , p 448 – 465 • Exner H.E. , Physical and Chemical Nature of Cemented Carbides , Int. Met. Rev...