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stacking faults

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003722
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... or Bravais lattice. This article provides a brief review of the terms and basic concepts associated with crystal structures. It also discusses some of the significant defects obstructing plastic flow in real crystals, namely point defects, line defects, stacking faults, twins, and cold work. Several tables...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... of alloys, diffusionless (martensitic) phase transformation as occurs with face-centered cubic to hexagonal close-packed transformation in cobalt-chromium alloys, and stacking faults and twins and their role in this transformation. It also discusses the strengthening mechanisms that are responsible...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of crystallographic planes parallel to the rolling plane of α-brass after plane-strain rolling at room temperature. Microstructural deformation modes for α-brass and copper at room temperature, as a function of strain. Courtesy of R.J. Asaro and A. Needleman Fig. 17 Stacking faults (bands of closely spaced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., Impure Metals, and Alloys Influence on Corrosion Point Defects (Zero-Dimensional) Line Defects (one-Dimensional) Plane Defects-Stacking Faults (two-Dimensional) Grain Boundaries Inclusions Voids Crystallography and Defects Alloying Welding, Working, and Heat Treatments...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of overall alloy composition and the phases that precipitate during solidification, upon heat treatment, or in service. Stacking faults are regions of the hcp configuration contained in the fcc matrix and are an important crystallographic feature of cobalt alloys. The tendency to form stacking faults...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... of a 76 mm (3.0 in.) wafer cut with 4° offcut toward [ 11 2 ¯ 0 ]. (a) 01 1 ¯ 0 reflection showing stacking-fault contrast from fault A only. (b) 0 1 ¯ 11 reflection showing strong fault contrast from fault B and weak fault contrast from fault A. (c) 2 ¯ 110...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006284
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... of changes in the deformation-created dislocations depends on the stacking-fault energy of the metal. Little change occurs in metals of low stacking-fault energy (such as copper alloys), but a considerable change is the norm for metals of high stacking-fault energy, such as pure copper and iron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.9781627081931
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... and recrystallization occurring after the deformation step while the workpiece is still hot. Figure 5 shows schematically grain structure changes during hot rolling to a moderate level and deformation and extrusion with a high level of deformation ( Ref 3 ). Stacking-fault energy, as mentioned in Fig. 5...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... low stacking fault energy ( Ref 6 ). The corresponding curve of a fine-grained polycrystal ( Ref 7 ) exhibits stage III behavior from the beginning. Here, the normal stress, σ, and the strain, ε, are converted to shear stress and shear strain, respectively, with the help of the Taylor factor τ = σ/3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... to the rolling plane. Original magnification 62,000× Fig. 5 Type 304 stainless steel, cross rolled 90% at 200 °C (390 °F). (a) Highly irregular cell structure and numerous microtwins and stacking faults. Thin-foil TEM specimen prepared parallel to the rolling plane. (b) Deformation cells (resembling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002355
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
.... Push-pull symmetrical loading ( R = −1) with low stress amplitudes. Number of cycles to fracture, N f = 1.2 × 10 6 cycles Fig. 5 Summary of near-surface dislocation structures as a function of amplitude (expressed here through number of cyles to fracture, N f ) and stacking-fault...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003730
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... In the broadest sense, substructures comprise all imperfections within the grains of polycrystalline metals or even single-phase alloys. Conventionally, substructure refers to subboundaries (low-angle boundaries), crystal imperfections (dislocations and stacking faults), and substructure impurity (solute...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002354
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... , 29 , 30 , 31 ). The stacking fault energy of copper (≈40 mJ/m 2 , e.g., Ref 32 ) decreases with increasing concentration of alloying element. Because α-brass and Cu-Al alloys of higher aluminum content exhibit planar slip character, the idea seems to be reasonable that the stacking fault energy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... orientation in space. At a grain boundary, the orientation changes abruptly. Source: Ref 1 Fig. 13 A three-dimensional sketch of a stacking fault in a fcc crystal. The fault is narrow ribbon several atomic diameters in thickness. It is bonded by partial dislocations (the lines AB and CD). Source...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003721
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... and stacking faults, can be revealed individually only at much higher magnifications. Examples of special kinds of substructure are: At the atomic structure level, individual atoms exhibit differences in the number of electrons in the various electron shells. This results in different types of bonding...
Book Chapter

By Sammy Tin
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... for self-diffusion versus the creep activation energy for a variety of metals. Source: Ref 8 Fig. 5 Plot of the normalized creep strain rate versus the normalized stacking-fault energy for a number of alloys creeping at the same normalized stress. The linear relationship indicates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
...-fault energy, whereas elements such as chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, and silicon tend to stabilize the hcp structure and decrease stacking-fault energy ( Ref 3 ). The fcc-to-hcp transformation reaction is quite sluggish, even for pure cobalt. However, in metastable compositions, it can be promoted...