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Book Chapter

By S.L. Rohde
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001288
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Table 1 Elemental sputtering yields for 500 eV ions Element Ion He Ne Ar Kr Xe Be 0.24 0.42 0.51 0.48 0.53 C 0.07 … 0.12 0.13 0.17 Al 0.16 0.73 1.05 0.96 0.82 Si 0.13 0.48 0.50 0.50 0.42 Ti 0.07 0.43 0.51 0.48 0.43 V 0.06 0.48 0.65...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article focuses on the principles and applications of high-sputter-rate dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) for depth profiling and bulk impurity analysis. It begins with an overview of various factors pertinent to sputtering. This is followed by a discussion on the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Physical vapor deposition (PVD) coatings are harder than any metal and are used in applications that cannot tolerate even microscopic wear losses. This article describes the three most common PVD processes: thermal evaporation, sputtering, and ion plating. It also discusses ion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... phenomena in continuous media and transition regime flows of VPP. It explains the methods used for molecular modeling in computational materials science. The article also presents examples that illustrate multiscale simulations of CVD or PVD processes and examples that focus on sputtering deposition and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... chemical processes occurring at the film-vacuum interface during IBAD and dual-ion-beam sputtering with illustrations. The article also reviews the methods used for large-area, high-volume implementation of IBAD and the modes of film formation for IBAD. It contains a table that presents information on...
Book Chapter

By Donald M. Mattox
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...” high-energy particles leaving a source ( Ref 5 , 6 ). This differentiation is important when using sputtering as a source for deposition because reflected high-energy neutrals from the target can have an important effect on the growing film. Figure 1 shows the distance traveled by particles of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... RBS, any of the above-mentioned surface analysis methods involves the use of an ion sputtering facility, which allows destructive depth profiling. Therefore, these methods can also be used for chemical analysis of the “bulk” of thin films and for the characterization of interfaces. Nondestructive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the lateral distribution of chemical species across a surface with sub-100 nm spatial resolution. Because secondary ion intensities vary dramatically from element to element and are highly dependent on the matrix from which they are sputtered, quantification with TOF-SIMS can be extremely difficult...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001291
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... transit from source to part and the energy with which ions impinge on that part. This level of control can be contrasted to competing vacuum coating technologies, such as electron-beam evaporation and magnetron sputtering, where the atoms of coating material travel from the source to the part to be coated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... sputtering or redeposition, do not accumulate; and the sample is treated as amorphous with no opportunity for channeling effects. There are several software packages of varying sophistication, ease of use, and specialization. They are mentioned here in brief so the reader can investigate as needed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... phenomenon is called sputtering and is analogous to the erosion of materials by the impact of high-velocity particles. The ratio of the number of substrate atoms ejected per incident ion is commonly termed the sputtering coefficient, S . As a general rule, for a given substrate material, S will increase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... × 10 −4 Sputter cleaning Time, h 1 3 … … 1.5 0.5 Pressure, Pa 90 133.3 … 200 0.4 1.0 Bias voltage, V 600 200 … 400–800 80 1000 Gas Ar N 2 … Ar, H 2 Ar, H 2 Ar Nitriding Time, h ≤20 20–70 4–12 dc/RF ≤ 2 2–18 0.5 Pressure, Pa 505 533.3 200–300...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... electron gun for primary electron excitation of the sample, an electron spectrometer for energy analysis of the Auger electrons, a secondary electron detector for secondary electron imaging, a stage for sample manipulation, and an ion gun for sputter removal of atoms from the sample surface. Stages are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... deposition (PVD) film can be understood by understanding the film formation process. The formation of a useful and commercially attractive engineered surface using any PVD process (vacuum deposition, sputter deposition, or ion plating) involves several stages: Choice of the substrate (“real surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... reaction, surface contamination, wear, depth profile of each element with ion gun sputtering Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) Electrons Diffraction electrons Surface crystallography and microstructure 10 μm 0.4–2 nm Adsorption, catalysis, chemical reactions, crystallography, crystal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006648
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... accelerated toward the sample surface, producing the sputtering of the sample atoms (e.g., removal of analyte species) and the emission of secondary electrons that sustain the plasma. For analytical applications, GDs are operated in the abnormal current-voltage mode, where applied voltage is proportional to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0005586
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... DIBS dual-ion-beam sputtering DIN Deutsche Industrie-Normen (German Industrial Standards) DLC diamondlike carbon dL / dX loading rate dpa displacements per incident atom DPH diamond pyramid hardness (Vickers hardness) e natural log base, 2.71828; charge of an...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006639
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... react with the atmosphere to form oxides or sulfides on the surface that need to be cleaned by sputtering. Thus, the calibration material is common but must be clean. Most metals exposed to the atmosphere are covered with carbon known as “adventitious carbon.” This is saturated carbon and is used as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006640
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... a few hundred megahertz, and the diode, D, ensures that the current is unidirectional. Material from the sample (cathode) is vaporized and atomized by a combination of the heat generated and sputtering by energetic argon ions. Fig. 7 Schematic of a typical spark stand design. Source: Ref 8...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... quality. Metallic coatings (gold or chromium) are preferred for imaging purposes because they increase the image-forming electron yield; such coatings are prepared by thermal evaporation or sputter coating. Carbon coatings prepared by evaporation are used for x-ray analysis because the surface film is...