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Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... disadvantages of green sand molding. The article discusses the primary control parameters for the sand system formulation. It describes two basic types of green sand molds such as flask molds and flaskless molds. The article provides a discussion on molding problems including springback and expansion defects...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... obtained in the forming of stainless steel. However, in order to lessen the effect of springback variation on accuracy and to gain the advantage of increased ductility, the great majority of formed titanium parts are made by hot forming or by cold preforming and then hot sizing. Characteristics of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... permanent, thermally recoverable, or a combination of the two, depending on the deformation temperature and strain. Also defined in Fig. 12 is the springback strain, consisting of three distinct contributions: the elasticity of the austenite, the elasticity of the martensite, and the phase transformation...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... forming complex shapes of the latter alloy group more difficult. This normally increases tensile and yield strengths and causes a slight drop in ductility. Titanium metals exhibit a high degree of springback in cold forming. To overcome this characteristic, titanium must be extensively overformed or, as...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003178
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Typically, stretching while bending reduces springback. This one-operation process can replace alternative two-operation techniques, thereby saving time and labor, even though stretch bending is slow. The tools, form blocks, or dies for stretch bending are simpler in design and less costly than conventional...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003990
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... machined may not be suitable for rotary forging for a variety of reasons. For example, the material may experience cracking during the forging process; the finished part may undergo elastic springback; or there may be areas on the workpiece that do not conform to the die contour, leaving a gap between die...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... flow and fragmentation Bulk compression Springback Wet-bag isostatic pressing was the process developed first and is the most popular type of isostatic pressing. It is frequently used for the production of experimental or prototype parts, because parts can be formed to a rough...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.9781627081863
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... for the press-brake forming of refractory metal sheet 0.5 to 1.3 mm (0.020 to 0.050 in.) thick Metal or alloy Forming temperature, °C (°F) Minimum bend radius (a) Springback, degrees Test data Preferred Niobium alloys (annealed) C-103 (Nb-10Hf-1Ti), C-129Y (Nb-10Hf-10W) Room...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... fabricated from prepainted steel, the maximum bend radius, the forming equipment, and the joining method must be considered. As mentioned earlier, the maximum bend radius during fabrication may be smaller than that specified for the final part because of springback. The design radius should be as generous as...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... sound process design is directly related to how well the initial design represents an optimized solution. Further, the real mold size differs from its pattern or computer-aided design (CAD) data, because of mold coating, production error, and other factors such as springback in sand molding. Measuring...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004014
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... both ends of the tube maintaining taper angles and linear dimensions consistently during the run without adjustment to the tooling ( Fig. 6 ). Springback, straightness, and dimensional distortion are controlled by roll configuration, feed rate, and rate of rotation. The roll arrangement permits...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... part is ejected from the die. The strain associated with this stress relief depends on the compacting pressure, the green expansion of the material being compacted, and the rigidity of the die. Green expansion, also known as springback, is the difference between the size of the ejected part and the die...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... orthognathic surgery. Cobalt alloy wires formed by metal drawing have been used in orthodontics, where their high yield strength as a result of mechanical working provides the desired springback characteristics for tooth repositioning. However, their use for this application has been displaced, for the most...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
Book Chapter

By Erhard Klar
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005326
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... tendency toward springback after die pressing. However, even the highest-strength pearlitic malleable can be straightened to achieve good dimensional tolerances. Malleable iron is characterized by microstructures consisting of uniformly dispersed fine particles of free carbon in a matrix of ferrite or...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... phase within the α. Straightening and flattening procedures for titanium alloys to meet dimensional requirements are difficult due to springback caused by the higher yield strength and higher modulus of elasticity of titanium and its alloys. It is not easily cold straightened like softer, more...