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spring failures

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Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 19 Optical photograph of several of the spring failures; the typical failure locations are shown on the left More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article discusses the common causes of failures of springs, with illustrations. Design deficiencies, material defects, processing errors or deficiencies, and unusual operating conditions are the common causes of spring failures. In most cases, these causes result in failure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract Mechanical springs are used in mechanical components to exert force, provide flexibility, and absorb or store energy. This article provides an overview of the operating conditions of mechanical springs. Common failure mechanisms and processes involved in the examination of spring...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 13 Valve-spring failure due to residual shrinkage pipe. (a) Macrograph showing fracture, as indicated by arrow. (b) Fracture surface; pipe is indicated by arrow. More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 3 Valve-spring failure due to residual shrinkage pipe. (a) Macrograph showing fracture as indicated by arrow. (b) Fracture surface; pipe is indicated by arrow. More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 7 Spring failure originating at a cluster of inclusions. (a) Two adjacent dark areas (boxed zone) indicate presence of nonmetallics. 9×. (b) Two failure origins are located at BB, and one at AA. 43× More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 10 Spring failure originating at a sharp-edged pitted area. Arrows indicate the location of the sharp-edged areas. 28× More
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 1 Valve-spring failure due to residual shrinkage during solidification. (a) Macrograph showing fracture, as indicated by arrow. (b) Fracture surface; pipe is indicated by arrow. Source: Ref 4 More
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 24 Photograph of helical compressor spring failure that occurred three active turns from the bottom. The failure origin was on the inside diameter of the spring More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 25 Failure of tension springs ( example 11 ). (a) Spring fracture surface showing the presence of a discolored precrack region. 3×. (b) Cross section through the precracked region of the spring revealing a thick scale (vertical surface) on the fracture surface. 2% nital etch. 148× More
Image
Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 21 Failure of tension springs (Example 11). (a) Spring fracture surface showing the presence of a discolored precrack region. Original magnification: 3×. (b) Cross section through the precracked region of the spring revealing a thick scale (vertical surface) on the fracture surface. 2 More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 11 Failures in wire springs. (a) Longitudinal failure originating at a seam. 45×. (b) Origin of failure at a very shallow seam. The arrow indicates the base of the seam. 115× More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 6 Transverse failure origin in a valve spring made from ground rod. The transverse marks (arrow) are remnants of the grinding operation. 8× More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 19 Failure origin (arrow) on the edge of a flat spring. 58× More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 17 Torsional fatigue failure of boron-containing alloy steel helical spring. Fatigue initiated at an abraded area marked by arrows. The material in compression coil springs is subjected to unidirectional torsion, so fatigue propagates on a single helical surface. Source: Ref 4 More
Image
Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 17 Torsional fatigue failure of boron-containing alloy steel helical spring. Fatigue initiated at an abraded area marked by arrows. The material in compression coil springs is subjected to unidirectional torsion, so fatigue propagates on a single helical surface. Source: Ref 4 More
Book Chapter

By Mark Hayes
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... Abstract This article discusses the failure mechanism of springs. It describes the critical application factors that affect spring fatigue performance. These include: material type and strength; stress conditions; surface quality; manufacturing processes; rate of application of load...
Image
Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 19 Effect of peening on the probability of fatigue failure of hot-wound steel springs. Top: 95% probability of failure. Middle: 50% probability of failure. Bottom: 5% probability of failure. Springs were made from 16 to 27 mm ( 5 8 to 1 1 16 in.) diam 8650 and 8660 hot More
Book Chapter

By Loren Godfrey
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... the spring itself or where spring failure could cause extensive damage to other components. Seams Seams are evaluated visually, often after etching with hot 50% muriatic acid. The depth of metal removed can vary from 0.006 mm ( 1 4 mil) to 1% of wire diameter. Examination of small-diameter...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000607
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... as Fig. 279 , but at higher magnification. SEM, 100× (J.H. Maker, Associated Spring, Barnes Group Inc.) Fig. 279 Fig. 280 Fig. 281, 282 Low-cycle fatigue fracture of AISI 1074 strip. Failure initiated at defects that were probably formed during hot rolling of the band. Binocular...