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spring failures

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Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 19 Optical photograph of several of the spring failures; the typical failure locations are shown on the left More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article discusses the common causes of failures of springs, with illustrations. Design deficiencies, material defects, processing errors or deficiencies, and unusual operating conditions are the common causes of spring failures. In most cases, these causes result in failure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract Mechanical springs are used in mechanical components to exert force, provide flexibility, and absorb or store energy. This article provides an overview of the operating conditions of mechanical springs. Common failure mechanisms and processes involved in the examination of spring...
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 3 Valve-spring failure due to residual shrinkage pipe. (a) Macrograph showing fracture as indicated by arrow. (b) Fracture surface; pipe is indicated by arrow. More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 7 Spring failure originating at a cluster of inclusions. (a) Two adjacent dark areas (boxed zone) indicate presence of nonmetallics. 9×. (b) Two failure origins are located at BB, and one at AA. 43× More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 10 Spring failure originating at a sharp-edged pitted area. Arrows indicate the location of the sharp-edged areas. 28× More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 13 Valve-spring failure due to residual shrinkage pipe. (a) Macrograph showing fracture, as indicated by arrow. (b) Fracture surface; pipe is indicated by arrow. More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 1 Valve-spring failure due to residual shrinkage during solidification. (a) Macrograph showing fracture, as indicated by arrow. (b) Fracture surface; pipe is indicated by arrow. Source: Ref 4 More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 24 Photograph of helical compressor spring failure that occurred three active turns from the bottom. The failure origin was on the inside diameter of the spring More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 25 Failure of tension springs ( example 11 ). (a) Spring fracture surface showing the presence of a discolored precrack region. 3×. (b) Cross section through the precracked region of the spring revealing a thick scale (vertical surface) on the fracture surface. 2% nital etch. 148× More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 21 Failure of tension springs (Example 11). (a) Spring fracture surface showing the presence of a discolored precrack region. Original magnification: 3×. (b) Cross section through the precracked region of the spring revealing a thick scale (vertical surface) on the fracture surface. 2 More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 11 Failures in wire springs. (a) Longitudinal failure originating at a seam. 45×. (b) Origin of failure at a very shallow seam. The arrow indicates the base of the seam. 115× More
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Published: 01 January 1987
Fig. 53 Torsion failure of an AISI 51B60 railroad spring. The failure began by fatigue at the abraded area at the top (arrows). More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 17 Torsional fatigue failure of boron-containing alloy steel helical spring. Fatigue initiated at an abraded area marked by arrows. The material in compression coil springs is subjected to unidirectional torsion, so fatigue propagates on a single helical surface. Source: Ref 4 More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 6 Transverse failure origin in a valve spring made from ground rod. The transverse marks (arrow) are remnants of the grinding operation. 8× More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 19 Failure origin (arrow) on the edge of a flat spring. 58× More
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Published: 01 January 1987
Fig. 291 Fatigue failure of flat, cantilever-type AISI 1070 spring due to inadequate removal of blanking fracture. Failure initiated at a point on the edge of the spring. SEM, 100× (J.H. Maker, Associated Spring, Barnes Group Inc.) More
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Published: 01 January 1987
Fig. 305 Fatigue failure of an automotive engine valve spring made of a steel similar to ASTM A230. The spring was shot peened; service stresses were very high. Cause of fracture was a seam 15 μm (0.5 mils) deep. The surface defect initiated a longitudinal shear crack that propagated More
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Published: 01 January 1987
Fig. 613 Fatigue fracture of AISI type 302 spring wire. Failure initiated at grain-boundary damage called “alligatoring,” a condition resulting from overetching during acid cleaning. Alligatoring is always detrimental to fatigue resistance and in extreme cases (such as this one) can lead More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 17 Torsional fatigue failure of boron-containing alloy steel helical spring. Fatigue initiated at an abraded area marked by arrows. The material in compression coil springs is subjected to unidirectional torsion, so fatigue propagates on a single helical surface. Source: Ref 4 More