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spring failures

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article discusses the common causes of failures of springs, with illustrations. Design deficiencies, material defects, processing errors or deficiencies, and unusual operating conditions are the common causes of spring failures. In most cases, these causes result in failure...
Book Chapter

By Mark Hayes
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... Table 1 Spring fatigue data from Fig. 1 Maximumstress, MPa Number tested Number broken Ideal percentage of failure for profit Actual percentage 1080 7 7 1000 12 12 95 100 960 9 8 80–90 89 920 6 3 25–75 50 880 9 2 10–20 22 840 12 0 5 0...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005967
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract Of the various thermal processing methods for steel, heat treating has the greatest overall impact on control of residual stress and on dimensional control. This article provides an overview of the effects of material- and process-related parameters on the various types of failures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... of the spacing. SEM, 1400× Fig. 613 Fatigue fracture of AISI type 302 spring wire. Failure initiated at grain-boundary damage called “alligatoring,” a condition resulting from overetching during acid cleaning. Alligatoring is always detrimental to fatigue resistance and in extreme cases...
Book Chapter

By Loren Godfrey
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... replacement of a broken spring would be difficult and much more costly than the spring itself or where spring failure could cause extensive damage to other components. Residual stresses can increase or decrease the strength of a spring material, depending on their direction. For example, residual...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000608
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... into the material. The balance of the fracture surface has a typical tensile failure pattern. SEM, 590× (J.H. Maker, Associated Spring, Barnes Group Inc.) Fig. 499 Fatigue fracture in an AISI 6150 steel spring leg of an aircraft main landing gear, heat treated to a minimum tensile strength of 1550 MPa...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000607
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
...× (J.H. Maker, Associated Spring, Barnes Group Inc.) Low-cycle fatigue fracture of AISI 1074 strip. Failure initiated at defects that were probably formed during hot rolling of the band. Binocular examination of defects revealed dark (oxidized) areas. Metallographic sections contained decarburized...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... fatigue fracture of the spring. Without careful consideration of all the evidence, the failure analyst may overlook the true cause of a distortion failure. Several common aspects of failure by distortion are discussed in this article, and suitable examples of distortion failures are presented...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... head with the piston, but the failure analyst must go beyond this immediate cause in order to recommend proper corrective measures. The valve may have stuck open because of faulty lubrication; the valve spring may have broken because corrosion had weakened it. The spring may have had insufficient...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... is W v = 1 2 σ 2 E It is this that should be maximized. The spring will be damaged if the stress σ exceeds the elastic limit, yield stress, or failure stress σ f ; the constraint is that σ ≤ σ f with an appropriate safety factor, S f . So the maximum energy per unit volume...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... to three-quarter hard H04 CW to hard H06 CW to extra hard H08 CW to spring H10 CW to extra spring H14 CW to super spring TB00 ST TF00 ST + age TD01 ST + CW TD02 ST + CW TD04 ST + CW TH01 ST + CW + age TH02 ST + CW + age TH04 ST + CW + age TM00 CW...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... in stiffening just before failure. Fig. 3 Relationship between volumetric strain, Δ V , and tensile strain, ε T , during tensile creep of high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) and toughened polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Source: Ref 6 Fig. 4 Tensile stress-strain curve for high-impact polystyrene...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...” in the fabrication process of these springs, yet the incidence of field failures suddenly increased dramatically. Fatigue tests, using springs fabricated prior to field failures, lasted 500,000 cycles to failure, whereas fatigue tests performed on springs fabricated after field failures lasted only 50,000 cycles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract X-ray diffraction (XRD) residual-stress analysis is an essential tool for failure analysis. This article focuses primarily on what the analyst should know about applying XRD residual-stress measurement techniques to failure analysis. Discussions are extended to the description of ways...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005593
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
..., the defects can expand into planar cracks or so-called flat spots. These defects occur irregularly and can be the source of intermittent failures on projection-welded components. Ideal projection welds show a number of underlying process characteristics. These include localized heating (and subsequent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
.... The article presents the temperature range of alloy steels for stress-relief heat treating and describes the importance of stress relief of springs. heat treatment residual stress springs steel stress relieving thermal stress STRESS-RELIEF HEAT TREATING is used to relieve stresses that remain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... relaxation testing used for the most convenient and common uniaxial tensile test. It concludes with information on compression testing, bend testing, torsion testing, and tests on springs. stress relaxation testing metallic materials long-term tests accelerated testing uniaxial tensile test...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003554
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... composition maps made with the electron microprobe of a copper penetration crack in a failed locomotive axle. 270× In the spring of 1975, a major disaster occurred in a chemical plant in Flixborough in the United Kingdom. The primary failure was determined to be the result of the collapse...
Book Chapter

By Eugene Shapiro
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003268
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... specifies a bend test to determine the modulus of elasticity in bending. Japanese Industrial Standard JIS 3130 specifies two tests to determine the elastic limit of spring plate or strip: the repeated deflection spring test and the moment type spring test. bend testing ductility strength specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000605
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
..., laps tend to induce failures in springs by first initiating a longitudinal shear crack. Fig. 160 : Fracture surface. SEM, 70×. Fig. 161 : Boxed area in Fig. 160 . SEM, 100×. Fig. 162 : Higher-magnification view shows the dark, nonuniformly textured lap and the lighter, more uniformly textured shear...