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spinodal-hardening alloys

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... treatments such as precipitation hardening, spinodal hardening, order hardening, and quench hardening and tempering. The article presents tables that list the compositions and mechanical properties of copper alloys. It also discusses two strengthening mechanisms of copper alloys, solid-solution strengthening...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... are used in applications involving repeated flexing: springs used for contacts and connectors, bellows, and Bourdon tubes. Alloys used for these applications include the brasses, bronzes (tin-, silicon-, aluminum-, and combinations thereof), and beryllium coppers. Copper-nickel-tin spinodally hardened...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003730
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... consist of multiphase microstructures. Ferrous alloys are obvious examples, as are precipitation-hardened nonferrous alloy systems. However, even single-phase metastable structures, particularly martensitic structures, have distinct morphologies that depend on composition. Other than macrostructure, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006274
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... magnesium alloys nickel alloys nonferrous alloys precipitation hardening titanium titanium alloys PRACTICALLY ALL METALS and alloys respond readily to work-hardening and annealing treatments, but only a relatively small portion of nonferrous alloys respond significantly to hardening by heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... important purpose of heat treatment is to harden or strengthen an alloy. Almost any metal or alloy can be softened by annealing after cold working, but fewer alloy systems can be strengthened or hardened by heat treatment. Metallurgists often use the term heat treatable alloys in reference to alloys...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... is restricted to the specific operations employed to increase strength and hardness of the precipitation-hardenable wrought and cast alloys. These alloys usually are referred to as the “heat-treatable” alloys to distinguish them from those alloys in which no significant strengthening can be achieved by heating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... characteristics heat treatment physical metallurgy production steps safe handling BERYLLIUM ADDITIONS, up to about 2 wt%, produce dramatic effects in several base metals. In copper and nickel, this alloying addition promotes strengthening through precipitation hardening. In aluminum alloys, a small...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... dislocation slip systems. Many of the applications of copper and copper alloys take advantage of the work-hardening capability of the material, with the cold processing deformation of the final forming steps providing the required strength/ductility for direct use or for subsequent forming of stamped...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003731
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Widmanstätten structures (see the article “Metallography: An Introduction” in this Volume), while micron-scale precipitate structures occur in moderately to rapidly cooled medium-carbon steel. Precipitation also provides the basis of the strengthening mechanism in age-hardening alloys, where small-scale...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003721
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Metallurgy Concepts in Interpretation of Microstructures” in this Volume). For example, most ferrous metals as well as many nonferrous alloys, especially the age-hardening and precipitation-hardening alloys, consist of more than one phase. The characteristic multiphase structures can be related...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... to a small but important class of alloys, most notably, the beryllium-copper and copper-nickel-silicon alloy systems. Spinodal and/or precipitation hardening is available in the copper-nickel-tin, copper-nickel-chromium, and copper-titanium systems. Hardening by martensite transformation is available...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006268
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract This article describes the effects of alloying and heat treatment on the metastable transition precipitates that occur in age hardenable aluminum alloys. Early precipitation stages are less well understood than later ones. This article details the aging sequence and characteristics...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Spinodal and/or precipitation hardening is available in the Cu-Ni-Sn and Cu-Ni-Cr systems. Hardening by martensite transformation is available in the copper-aluminum system, but is rarely used commercially. Copper alloys are classified using the Unified Numbering System (UNS). The designations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... their compositions toward equilibrium in a similar fashion as that found in a spinodal decomposition, as shown schematically in Fig. 9(c) . Fundamental knowledge about the criteria that control the pseudospinodal mechanism, that is, how sensitive c 0 ( T ) is to alloy chemistry and how close an alloy composition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
.... It also discusses the mechanisms used for strengthening aluminum alloys, including solid-solution hardening, grain-size strengthening, work or strain hardening, and precipitation hardening. The process of precipitation hardening involves solution heat treatment, quenching, and subsequent aging...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... resolution to features which are ∼1 μm or larger. Although this value is small, many microstructural features influencing the properties of metals and alloys are too small to be observed using optical microscopy. Dislocations, numerous types of second-phase particles, spinodal and ordered structures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... TiC-(Nb, Ta, Ti) C-(Ni, Mo, Co) Kentanium Kennametal 1952–1954 TiC-(steel, Mo) Ferro-TiC Sintercast (Chromalloy) 1960 TiC-(Ni, Mo) … Ford Motor Company 1970 Ti(C, N)-(Ni, Mo) Experimental alloys Technical University Vienna 1974 (Ti,Mo) (C,N)-(Ni,Mo) Spinodal Alloy Teledyne...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005989
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... and J92615) are annealed to relieve stresses and reduce hardness by being heated above 790 °C (1450 °F) ( Table 3 ). In work-hardenable ferritic alloys, machining and grinding stresses are relieved at temperatures from about 260 to 540 °C (500 to 1000 °F). Annealing of ferritic stainless steel castings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002462
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
.... Some 3 xx.x casting alloys contain small additions of magnesium to render them capable of being age hardened. Silicon is deliberately added to some alloys containing magnesium to provide precipitation hardening. The Al-Mg-Si system is the basis for the 6 xxx alloys. At low magnesium contents...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
..., nickel-aluminum bronzes, silicon bronzes, and beryllium bronzes. This article briefly discusses the types, hardening mechanisms, heat treatment processes, applications, and mechanical properties of these bronzes and high-copper alloys. beryllium-copper alloys cast aluminum bronze cast beryllium...