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spinodal transformation structure

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... article describes the order-disorder transformation that typically occurs on cooling from a disordered solid solution to an ordered phase. It provides a table that lists selected superlattice structures and alloy phases that order according to each superlattice. The article informs that spinodal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... number of Burgers correspondence variants and orientation variants. The article also includes calculation of the transformation strain with contributions from defect structures developed at alpha/beta interfaces as a precipitates grow in size. In the CALculation of PHAse Diagram (CALPHAD) framework, the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... growth. The article also describes the various types of solid-state transformations such as isothermal transformation and athermal transformation, resulting from the heat treatment of nonferrous alloys. It provides information on the homogenization of chemical composition within a cast structure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... the beta phase in the copper-zinc system. Rapid cooling from the high-temperature beta phase in copper-aluminum alloys generates a martensitic transformation (as in steels) to produce a nonequilibrium phase (β′) that has a hexagonal crystal structure and is ordered. Other elements and metals are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006274
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
.... The processes of hardening copper alloys by isothermal transformation (aging) include precipitation hardening, spinodal hardening, and order hardening. The quench-hardening alloys include aluminum bronzes, nickel-aluminum bronzes, and a few special Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006268
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... to an increase of strength. The clusters are metastable and continue to evolve into other precipitates, the composition, size, shape, and crystal structure of which may differ. The transition between different types of precipitates may be a gradual transformation via exchange of atoms on specific...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... ( Ref 27 ) have been reported. In addition, a metastable ordered L1 2 structure has been observed ( Ref 29 ). This metastable phase can form at low temperatures from supersaturated solid solution and will transform to the equilibrium tetragonal DO 23 at elevated temperatures. The cubic L1 2 structure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... evolve toward a more stable state and to reach its equilibrium. Because the parent phase is not unstable, this transformation cannot proceed through the continuous development of growing infinitesimal perturbations delocalized in the whole phase, that is, by spinodal decomposition ( Ref 13 , 14 ). Such...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... phase transformations occur—the alloys are austenitic from the melting temperature down to absolute zero. While some precipitates may form such as carbides and the γ′ hardening phase, these do not change the basic austenitic-type structure of the matrix. TITANIUM AND TITANIUM ALLOYS...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... alloys. Because of its low strength, the pure metal is not regarded as a structural material and is rarely used in monolithic form. Rather, the metal is most frequently used as coating for other metals and in alloys to impart corrosion resistance, enhance appearance, or improve solderability. It also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., and spectrometry techniques with data analysis. electron diffraction transmission electron microscopy crystal structure Microstructure observation is an essential approach for materials characterization, which is primarily performed by using light optical microscopy and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... bearings and filters, are made by P/M methods. Structural parts, including high-strength oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) copper alloys are also produced by P/M. The copper industry in the United States, broadly speaking, is composed of two segments: producers (mining, smelting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004014
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.../unitized structure and, in most cases, improved materials properties (which allows thinner walls). Other important advantages may include reduced need for welding fabrication (and the nondestructive evaluation of weld integrity), reduced length of starting stock, and inventory reduction. Process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... which the aforementioned bronzes are based. The heat treatability of each of these four types of bronzes is explored in terms of their liquidus temperature, solidus temperature, solid-solution hardening, solvus temperature, freezing range temperature, and phase transformation reactions (e.g., peritectic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Table 2 Distinguishing characteristics of brittle versus ductile behavior depending on the scale of observation Scale of observation Brittle behavior Ductile behavior Structural engineer Applied stress at failure is less than the yield stress Applied stress at failure is greater...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... notably, the beryllium copper alloys. Cu-Ni-Al and Cu-Ni-Si alloys are also commercially important precipitation-hardenable alloys. Spinodal and/or precipitation hardening is available in the Cu-Ni-Sn and Cu-Ni-Cr systems. Hardening by martensite transformation is available in the copper-aluminum system...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... should begin with visual inspection, perhaps aided by the use of a simple hand lens (up to 10 ×). In failure analyses, it may be necessary to examine the entire component or structure to find the broken sections, to determine the origin of the failure, and to separate the fractures according to the time...