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spheroidizing

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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 5 Effect of prior microstructure on spheroidizing a 1040 steel at 700 °C (1290 °F) for 21 h. (a) Starting from a martensitic microstructure (as-quenched). (b) Starting from a ferrite-pearlite microstructure (fully annealed). Etched in 4% picral plus 2% nital. Original magnification: 1000× More
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Published: 01 December 2009
Fig. 2 Mechanisms of the spheroidization of alpha lamellae. (a) Spheroidization driven by the formation of subboundaries or shear bands within alpha lamellae. Source: Ref 9 . (b, c) Observation of shear bands developed during hot deformation. Source: Ref 8 , 11 More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 25 AISI L1, spheroidize annealed. Note the very-well-formed spheroidal carbides. 4% picral. 500× More
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Published: 01 January 1986
Fig. 76 Spheroidized cementite particles pinning a recrystallization front during intercritical annealing of a low-carbon steel. Note the recovered dislocation substructure to the left of the front. Thin foil TEM specimen More
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 3 Typical graphite shapes after ASTM A247. I, spheroidal graphite; II, imperfect spheroidal graphite; III, temper graphite, IV, compacted graphite; V, crab graphite; VI, exploded graphite; VII, flake graphite More
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 13 Short-term elevated-temperature tensile strengths of (a) partially spheroidized pearlitic malleable irons produced by air cooling after the temper carbon anneal, (b) finely spheroidized pearlitic malleable irons produced by oil quenching after the temper carbon anneal, and (c) oil More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 4 Spheroidized microstructure of 1040 steel after 21 h at 700 °C (1290 °F). 4% picral etch. Original magnification: 1000× More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 6 The extent of spheroidization at 700 °C (1290 °F) for 200 h for the 1040 steel starting from a ferrite-pearlite microstructure etched in 4% picral. Original magnification: 1000× More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 8 Effect of partial spheroidization on surface finish and tool life in subsequent machining of 5160 steel. (a) Annealed (pearlitic) microstructure (hardness: 241 HB) and surface finish of flange after machining of eight pieces. (b) Tool life between grinds, min. (c) Partially spheroidized More
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 44 Effect of spheroidization on the rupture strength of carbon-molybdenum steel (0.17C-0.88Mn-0.20Si-0.42Mo). Source: Ref 73 More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 6 Carbides are fully spheroidized from thermal degradation near failure. Voids (dark sites) have formed along the grain boundaries that are perpendicular to the direction of applied stress. Original magnification 1050× More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 24 Deformation and fracture map for spheroidized 1045 steel. Source: Ref 40 More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 29 Temperature-time plot of pearlite decomposition by spheroidization and graphitization. The curve for spheroidization is for conversion of one-half of the carbon in 0.15% C steel to spheroidal carbides. The curve for graphitization is for conversion of one-half of the carbon in aluminum More
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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 13 Effect of strain and strain rate on percent spheroidization of Ti-49Al-2V at 1330 K. Source: Ref 15 More
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Published: 30 September 2015
Fig. 6 Spheroidal silicon oxide particles formed on 316L part on cooling in a marginal dewpoint furnace atmosphere. Source: Ref 4 More
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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 19 Isothermal growth of a graphite spheroid within an austenite shell and growth of the shell with a smooth interface. (a) Growth of spheroidal graphite in contact with melt. (b) Envelopment by austenite. (c) Growth of spheroidal graphite within the austenite shell. Source: Ref 24 More
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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 20 Schematic illustrating the progression of growth in austenite-spheroidal graphite eutectic More
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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 21 SEM micrographs of deep-etched spheroidal graphite samples showing a fractured graphite spheroid (a). Nodularity decreases from (a) through (c). More
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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 30 Transition from (a) flake to compacted graphite and from (b) spheroidal to compacted graphite based on the twin/tilt of boundaries growth mechanism. Source: Ref 41 More
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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 6 Microstructure of spheroidal graphite in cast ductile iron. Graphite (dark) is surrounded by ferrite (white) in a pearlite matrix. Original magnification: 250×. Courtesy of Bruce Boardman More