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spheroidizing

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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 5 Effect of prior microstructure on spheroidizing a 1040 steel at 700 °C (1290 °F) for 21 h. (a) Starting from a martensitic microstructure (as-quenched). (b) Starting from a ferrite-pearlite microstructure (fully annealed). Etched in 4% picral plus 2% nital. Original magnification: 1000× More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 25 AISI L1, spheroidize annealed. Note the very-well-formed spheroidal carbides. 4% picral. 500× More
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Published: 01 December 2009
Fig. 2 Mechanisms of the spheroidization of alpha lamellae. (a) Spheroidization driven by the formation of subboundaries or shear bands within alpha lamellae. Source: Ref 9 . (b, c) Observation of shear bands developed during hot deformation. Source: Ref 8 , 11 More
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Published: 30 September 2014
Fig. 11 (a) Yield limit of spheroidized and annealed SAE 52100 as a function of temperature. (b) Corresponding stress-strain curves; strain rate: 40 × 10 −4 1/s. Source: Ref 4 More
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Published: 01 January 1986
Fig. 76 Spheroidized cementite particles pinning a recrystallization front during intercritical annealing of a low-carbon steel. Note the recovered dislocation substructure to the left of the front. Thin foil TEM specimen More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 5 AISI W2 (1.05% C), spheroidize annealed. (a) Etched with 4% picral to outline only cementite (uniform dissolution of the ferrite matrix). (b) Etched with 2% nital, which reveals ferrite grain boundaries and outlines cementite. Note that the ferrite in some grains is weakly attacked More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 6 AISI W2 (1.05% C), spheroidize annealed. (a) Etched with boiling alkaline sodium picrate for 60 s to color the cementite brown. (b) Etched lightly with 4% picral and tint etched with Beraha's Na 2 S 2 O 3 /K 2 S 2 O 5 reagent to color the ferrite (wide range of colors). (c) Etched More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 21 AISI W1 (1.05% C). Influence of starting structure on spheroidization. (a) As-rolled; contains coarse and fine pearlite. (b) After spheroidization (heat to 760 °C, or 1400 °F; cool at a rate of 11 °C/h, or 20 °F/h, to 595 °C, or 1100 °F; air cool). (c) Austenitized at 870 °C (1600 °F More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 26 AISI S2, spheroidize annealed. 4% picral. 1000× More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 27 AISI S5, spheroidize annealed. 4% picral. 500× More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 28 AISI S7, spheroidize annealed. 4% picral. 1000× More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 29 AISI A6, spheroidize annealed. 4% picral. 1000× More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 30 AISI A6, partially spheroidized. Note lamellar pearlite. 4% picral. 1000× More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 31 AISI H13 chromium hot-worked tool steel, spheroidize annealed. 4% picral. 1000× More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 32 AISI M2 molybdenum high-speed tool steel, spheroidize annealed. 4% picral. 1000× More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 40 AISI O6, spheroidize annealed, transverse section. Note the globular appearance of the graphite (black). 4% picral. 500× More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 41 AISI O6, spheroidize annealed, longitudinal section. Note that the graphite is elongated in the rolling direction. 4% picral. 500× More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 38 Spheroidized cementite in a hypereutectoid steel that was heated after cold rolling of a prior-ferrite-pearlite microstructure. During plastic deformation, dislocations broke up the cementite lamellae in the pearlite, and subsequent heating allowed the material to minimize its energy More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 18 Macrostructure of a spheroidal graphite iron etched by direct austempering after solidification. Source: Ref 13 More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 27 Microstructures of spheroidal graphite iron found in the same microshrinkage cavity from a spheroidal graphite iron plate. (a) Austenite dendrites. (b) Eutectic (spheroidal graphite) aggregates. Source: Ref 21 More