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spherical surfaces

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... measurements (stereology) Object measurements (feature measurement) Area fraction Area Area percent Length ASTM E 112 grain size Width Count Aspect ratio Perimeter Feret measurements Mean intercept distance Perimeter Mean particle surface area Sphericity Density Convex...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Most surfaces have regular and irregular spacings that tend to form a pattern or texture on the surface. This article provides information on the general background of surface topography and discusses the different methods for measuring surface topography, namely, contact and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Rolling-element bearings, whether ball bearings or roller bearings with spherical, straight, or tapered rollers, are fabricated from a wide variety of steels. This article discusses the production process, characteristics, nominal compositions, and types of bearing steels. These...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... peaks are close together and there are many of them). Steel shot ( Fig. 26 ) is considered a round or spherical abrasive that produces a rounded profile or a peened surface texture, which results in a comparatively lower peak density pattern, because the peaks are round, farther apart, and fewer. Some...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... reactants, catalytic materials are often dispersed on a highly porous, high-surface-area, thermally stable carrier. This generally stabilizes the active sites by preventing their migration and coalescence. The most commonly used method for preparing supported metal and metal oxide catalysts involves two...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Thermal phenomena play a key role in the mechanics of surface finishing processes. This article provides information on the analysis and measurement of temperatures and associated thermal damage generated by finishing processes that are essential to the production of engineered...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., because of their strength, oxidation resistance, and corrosion resistance at elevated service temperatures (650 to 1205 °C, or 1200 to 2200 °F). The surfaces of parts made from these alloys must be cleaned of contaminants, of which there are several types. Shop soils, such as oil, grease, and cutting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... cold working of a metal surface with a stream of spherical shot particles applied to the surface at high velocity under carefully controlled conditions. Shot peening is most effective in reducing fatigue failures in parts subject to cyclic loading. Failures originate in surface areas under repeated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) is a technique for investigating the crystallography of surfaces and overlayers adsorbed on surfaces. This article provides a brief account of LEED, covering the principles and measurements of diffraction from surfaces. Some of the processes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Porcelain enamels are glass coatings applied primarily to products or parts made of sheet steel, cast iron, and aluminum to improve appearance and to protect the metal surface. This article describes the types of porcelain enamels, and details enamel frits for these materials. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Erosion of a solid surface can be brought about by liquid droplet impingement (LDI), which is defined as "progressive loss of original material from a solid surface due to continued exposure to erosion by liquid droplets." In this article, the emphasis is placed on the damage mechanism...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003058
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... contacted the surface. Fig. 22 Percussion cone fracture pattern produced by spherical particle contact with flat surface. P , normal load; R , size of cone crack For the case of highly angular contact asperities, fracture mechanics formulations for pyramidal indenters can be used to guide the...
Book Chapter

By Ted Kostilnik
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Shot peening is a method of cold working in which compressive stresses are induced in the exposed surface layers of metallic parts by the impingement of a stream of shot, directed at the metal surface at high velocity under controlled conditions. This article focuses on the major...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract This article describes the four major conditions that can cause beryllium to corrode in air. These include beryllium carbide particles exposed at the surface; surface contaminated with halide, sulfate, or nitrate ions; surface contaminated with other electrolyte fluids; and atmosphere...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article is an atlas of fractographs that helps in understanding the causes and mechanisms of fracture of sulfur concrete and asphalt and in identifying and interpreting the morphology of fracture surfaces. The fractographs illustrate the crystal morphology, noninterconnecting...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006474
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... of a given transducer is relatively narrow (±5% of the mean frequency). The transducer is positioned so that its focal point is at the surface of the test object. In this way, the pulse enters the object and travels through it as a spherical wave front diverging from a point on the surface. Because...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Eq 4 . The appearance of a surface eroded by spherical particles is shown in Fig. 4 . The surface shows the extruded lip formation or platelet mechanism of the deformation component of erosion. Angular particles usually produce large quantities of cutting wear, which results in A > B in Eq 4...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... reactions, filtration and washing, and powder recovery techniques. It concludes with a discussion on characterization, centering on size distribution analysis, specific surface area, density, porosity chemical composition, phase, and surface composition. ceramic powders ceramic processing additives...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006470
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Ultrasonic inspection is a family of nondestructive methods in which beams of high-frequency mechanical waves are introduced into materials, using transducers, for the detection and characterization of both surface and subsurface anomalies and flaws in the material. This article...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... design factors, and techniques to produce aerodynamic surfaces, improve surface smoothness, and avoid slipping and bridging of filament. The article discusses tooling and the equipment used in the filament winding process, namely, mandrel design, winding machines, tensioners, and ovens. curing...