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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... corrosion standards corrosion information corrosion databases REMARKABLE CHANGES in information technology have occurred since the 1987 edition of this Handbook was published. As a consequence, information and data that may not have been obtainable at that time are now routinely available by way...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006664
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...-5) is presented in Table 1 , which was adapted from Raphaelian’s previously published edition of this article ( Ref 5 ). When universal electron ionization GC/MS conditions are used, mass spectral databases can be employed to identify the compound from inspection of the mass spectrum ( Ref 6 , 7...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... element has a unique set of electron energies surrounding the nucleus, it also has a unique set of Auger peaks, and the resulting spectrum provides a fingerprint of the probed surface. The kinetic energy of the Auger electrons is typically between 40 and 2500 eV. In this energy regime, electrons can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006637
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... at which scattering occurs. That is, the energy scale for a given backscattering spectrum can be translated into a mass scale. Such a translation is expressed in Fig. 2 when 4 He is used as the probing beam for RBS. The mass resolution for RBS is directly related to the energy resolution...
Book Chapter

By S. Lampman
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006645
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... Spectrometers detect and measure the spectrum of x-rays emitted from the sample. The spectrum of electromagnetic radiation is generally characterized in terms of both radiation energy and radiation intensity. Due to the quantum wave-particle duality of electromagnetic radiation, a beam of x-rays can be thought...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in the articles “ Optical Emission Spectroscopy ,” “ Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy ,” and “ Ion Chromatography ” in Materials Characterization , Volume 10 of the ASM Handbook , 2019, and in the article “ Bulk Elemental Analysis ” in the Metals Handbook Desk Edition , 2nd ed., 1998...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... products cover a wide spectrum, such as railway track, concrete reinforcing bars, structural framing, machinery, pipelines, conduit, storage tanks, building and bridge structures, guard rail, culverts, roofing and siding, deck, doors, and food containers. Steel is selected for these varied uses in varied...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... the capability of penetrating opaque materials to reveal internal flaws. Fig. 2 Schematic representation of the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that includes x-rays, gamma rays, ultraviolet and visible light, and infrared radiation, showing their relationship with wave length and photon energy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006662
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... and accessories necessary in obtaining the infrared spectrum of a material are then discussed. The article presents various techniques and methods involved in IR qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis. It ends with a few examples of the applications of IR spectroscopy. infrared spectroscopy...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... produced by an object at a temperature above absolute zero and convert it to a proportional electric signal that then may be displayed. Infrared imaging equipment is available with a wide range of capabilities. The simplest systems are responsive to the near-infrared portion of the optical spectrum...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... as excited atoms relax span a range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Electronic transitions between inner shells typically produce x-rays (photons with energies in the 200 to 20,000 eV range, characterized by wavelengths of 6 to 0.06 nm). Instrumentation A simplified schematic of an XRF spectrometer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... has a unique set of electron energies surrounding the nucleus, it also has a unique set of Auger peaks, and the resulting spectrum provides a fingerprint of the probed surface. The kinetic energy of the Auger electrons is typically between 40 and 2500 eV. In this energy regime, electrons can only...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...-ray spectrum image databases, resulting in elemental images in which the gray or color scale is related to elemental concentration. Physical Basis of Electron-Excited X-Ray Microanalysis The x-ray microanalyst needs to be aware of the principles of x-ray generation, x-ray propagation through...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... spectrum of possibilities can be identified in a useful manner. Thus, x-ray spectroscopy is simply the manner by which this spectrum of x-rays is produced. Note that this spectrum is limited at both the low and high ends of the energy/wavelength scale. Because it takes energy to remove an electron from its...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006646
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... lattice. It is sometimes referred to as nuclear gamma-ray resonance. Most Mössbauer spectra are obtained by Doppler scanning, that is, by observing a count rate as a function of the relative velocity between the suitable γ-ray source and an absorber or scatterer. The spectrum then consists of a count rate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006639
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... resulting from the interaction of x-rays and solids reported in 1925 ( Ref 2 ). The spectrum resolutions obtained at that time were not sufficient to observe distinct peaks in spectra for materials. Thus, these phenomena hardly attracted any attention for many years following these discoveries. Modern x...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., the resultant data will be misinterpreted. Spectral artifacts such as sum peaks or pulse pileup effects should be removed from the spectrum to prevent element misidentification or other errors. The accelerating voltage must also be considered when reporting EDS data, because the higher the voltage, the deeper...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
..., the x-ray spectrum is the raw information used to perform qualitative and/or quantitative x-ray microanalysis. Some transmitted electrons that pass through the specimen will lose a certain amount of energy due to interactions with the atoms in the specimen. The amount of energy lost...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... “Scanning Electron Microscopy” in Volume 10 of ASM Handbook, formerly 9th Edition Metals Handbook. Fig. 1 Schematic cross section of a commercially available scanning electron microscope. Courtesy of JEOL Illuminating/Imaging System This system contains an electron gun that generates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... (2019). This division includes newly developed surface-analysis techniques, such as scanning probe and atomic force microscopy. This division focuses on the analysis of surface layers that are less than 100 nm. There is a broad spectrum of techniques that fit into this range of definition. Some...