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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract X-ray spectroscopy is generally accepted as the most useful ancillary technique that can be added to any scanning electron microscope (SEM), even to the point of being considered a necessity by most operators. While “stand-alone” x-ray detection systems are used less frequently in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract This article covers the three most popular techniques used to characterize the very outermost layers of solid surfaces: Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). Some of the more important...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006640
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article is a detailed account of optical emission spectroscopy (OES) for elemental analysis. It begins with a discussion on the historical background of OES and development trends in OES methods. This is followed by a description of the general principles and optical systems of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006653
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article focuses on some of the factors pertinent to atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). It begins by describing the working principle, critical components, and construction of flame atomic absorption instrumentation. This is followed by sections discussing various types of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006662
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... discusses the sampling techniques and applications of IR spectra as well as the molecular structure information it can provide. The discussion begins with a description of the general principle of IR spectroscopy. This is followed by a section on commercial IR instruments. Sampling techniques and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article introduces the principles of Raman spectroscopy and the representative materials characterization applications to which Raman spectroscopy has been applied. A discussion on light-scattering fundamentals and a description of the experimental aspects of the technique are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article is a brief account of low-energy ion-scattering spectroscopy (LEIS) for determining the atomic structure of solid surfaces. It begins with a description of the general principles of LEIS. This is followed by a section providing information on the equipment used for LEIS...
Book Chapter

By S. Lampman
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006645
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article provides a detailed account of X-ray spectroscopy used for elemental identification and determination. It begins with an overview of the operating principles of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer, as well as a comparison of the operating principles of wavelength...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006646
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... and principal methods used for producing ME sources. Mössbauer spectroscopy Mössbauer transitions The Mössbauer effect (ME) is a spectroscopic method for observing nuclear γ-ray fluorescence using the recoil-free transitions of a nucleus embedded in a solid lattice. It is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article discusses the basic principles of and chemical effects in Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), covering various factors affecting the quantitative analyses of AES. The discussion covers instrumentation and sophisticated electronics typically used in AES for data acquisition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article focuses on the principles and applications of high-sputter-rate dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) for depth profiling and bulk impurity analysis. It begins with an overview of various factors pertinent to sputtering. This is followed by a discussion on the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006639
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article focuses on the principles and applications of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for the analysis of elemental and chemical composition. The discussion covers the nomenclature, instruments, and specimen preparation process of XPS. Some of the factors pertinent to the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006650
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article focuses on the application of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in materials science, especially for inorganic and organic polymer solids. It begins with a discussion on the general principles of NMR, providing information on nuclear spin...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006651
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... every technique. Two other common ionization methods, glow discharge and secondary ion, are discussed briefly here and in greater detail in the articles “Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry” and “Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy” in this Volume. The large number of ionization methods can make...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006663
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006648
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... processes results in low matrix effects in GD spectroscopies. Three main ionization processes occur in GDMS, including electron ionization related to collisions with high energetic electrons (considered to be the main process responsible for the ionization of the discharge gas atoms); asymmetric charge...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... applications, there is not one analytical tool capable of solving the problem by itself in many cases; this requires a combination of analytical tools, including scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), SIMS, laser ablation ICP-MS, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis/x-ray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006637
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006664
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... properties can be summarized ( Ref 32 , 33 ) as follows: Continuous spectral distribution from the infrared to the x-ray region, which is ideal as a light source for ultraviolet and x-ray spectroscopies Higher intensity, permitting use of monochromators with narrow band pass Plane polarized...