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specimen replication

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Published: 30 September 2015
Fig. 2 Plot of percentages of replicate specimens with a given rating versus immersion time. Source: Ref 1 More
Image
Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 2 Plot of percentages of replicate specimens with a given rating versus immersion time. Source: Ref 1 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... fractographs with illustrations. cleaning fractograph fracture surface scanning electron microscopy specimen replication transmission electron microscopy THE APPLICATION of the transmission electron microscope to the study of fracture surfaces and related phenomena made it possible to obtain...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 43 Light micrograph of a ferrite-pearlite microstructure from a carbon steel reinforcing rod revealed using replicating tape. Specimen etched with picral More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 13 Grain-boundary carbide films in a Waspaloy forging. The films substantially reduced stress-rupture life. The specimen was electropolished before replication in a solution containing (by volume) 100 parts hydrochloric acid, 50 parts sulfuric acid, and 600 parts methanol. Transmission More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003751
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... slide and photographed in the metallographic laboratory. Replication Materials There are several different types of replication materials. Replication started about 50 years ago when surface replicas were common as specimens for observation in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). Initially...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0009219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... After the general curve shape is defined by individual specimens tested at each stress or strain level, the remaining specimens should be used to provide repeat testing (replication) at the same condition. Replication is most important under long-life test conditions, where variability tends...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... ). Fig. 9 Edge replica of graphite-epoxy specimen This technique was first applied by D.O. Stalnaker and W.W. Stinchcomb ( Ref 1 ) to the study of composites. Since their early work, edge replication has been used by a large number of investigators and is currently recognized as a standard...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... cleaning, replica stripping, organic-solvent cleaning, water-base detergent cleaning, cathodic cleaning, and chemical-etch cleaning. cleaning cracks fractography nondestructive inspection specimen preparation specimen preservation specimen sectioning steel fracture FRACTURE SURFACES...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... (continuum). As shown in Fig. 4 (a spectrum of carbon modeled to show the characteristic and continuum x-rays produced within the specimen before propagation to the spectrometer), this x-ray continuum forms a background under the characteristic x-ray peaks that impacts the correct measurement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... or specimen, or the commercial or proprietary name of the material, (2) details of the fabrication or heat treatment history of the part or specimen, (3) material properties, and (4) a brief summary of the fracture surface features displayed, the fracture mechanisms, and when possible, the cause of fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0009214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... can provide some tools for sound experimentation. These tools include experimental pattern, planned grouping, randomization, and replication. Their functions in experimentation are listed in Table 1 and are discussed below. Requisites and tools for sound experimentation Table 1 Requisites...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the test techniques that are available for monitoring crack initiation and crack growth and for obtaining information on fatigue damage in test specimens. These techniques include optical methods, the compliance method, electric potential measurement...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article provides a discussion on the metallographic techniques used for failure analysis, and on fracture examination in materials, with illustrations. It discusses various metallographic specimen preparation techniques, namely, sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003661
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... that must be taken in the application of these mechanical test procedures are covered in most standard methods. However, it must be stressed that the exposed and unexposed specimens should replicate each other as closely as possible. Therefore, consideration should be given to such factors as specimen size...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... first-stage plastic replicas ( Ref 51 , 66 ). Two years later, it was the method of direct evaporation of carbon onto the specimen developed by Smith and Nutting that, when adapted to the study of fractures, gave the best results ( Ref 51 , 67 ). A brief review of commonly used replicating techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... replicate specimens that have pitted, then arrange the pit-depth values in order of increasing rank. The Gumbel or extreme-value cumulative probability function is shown in Eq 9 , where ╬╗ and ╬▒ are the location and scale parameters, respectively. This probability function can be used to characterize...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... conclusively without seeing their natural color contrast, which is not possible with the replica. Fig. 16 Light micrograph of a ferrite-pearlite microstructure from a carbon steel reinforcing rod revealed using replicating tape. Specimen etched with picral Another example of a replica is shown...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003444
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... STRUCTURAL TEST SPECIMENS designed to characterize composite material behavior for failure modes not addressed in flat coupon specimens are known as elements (for smaller, more standard specimen configurations) and subcomponents (for nonstandard and typically larger specimens). Materials data can be used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... in susceptibility. For this purpose, it is advantageous to use replicate sets of specimens stressed at several levels, including zero applied stress. The sets are then removed for metallographic examination or tension tests after appropriate periods of exposure. Figure 16 illustrates the use of this procedure...