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specimen replication

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... stripping, organic-solvent cleaning, water-base detergent cleaning, cathodic cleaning, and chemical-etch cleaning. cleaning cracks fractography nondestructive inspection specimen preparation specimen preservation specimen sectioning steel fracture FRACTURE SURFACES are fragile and subject...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... revealed using replicating tape. Specimen etched with picral Another example of a replica is shown in Fig. 17 , along with a directly-viewed micrograph of the same area. The specimen is from a nitride American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 4150 chuck jaw that broke prematurely in service due to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... processes involved in the selection of metallurgical samples, the preparation and examination of metallographic specimens in failure analysis, and the analysis and interpretation of microstructures. Examination and evaluation of polymers and ceramic materials in failure analysis are also briefly discussed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... fractographs with illustrations. cleaning fractograph fracture surface scanning electron microscopy specimen replication transmission electron microscopy THE APPLICATION of the transmission electron microscope to the study of fracture surfaces and related phenomena made it possible to obtain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
.... Most of the microscopical studies of metals in the early 1900s were limited to examinations of polished specimens. In the 1930s, a number of investigators recognized that the properties of steels could be correlated with the macroscopic coarseness or fineness of the fracture surface. For example, Arpi...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...), or there could be differences in the conductive coating of the unknown and standard or the quality of the specimen surface, including local topography (pits, ridges), or unexpected surface layers due to contamination or oxide formation. However, for analytical totals that fall significantly below...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... part or specimen, or the commercial or proprietary name of the material, (2) details of the fabrication or heat treatment history of the part or specimen, (3) material properties, and (4) a brief summary of the fracture surface features displayed, the fracture mechanisms, and when possible, the cause...
Book Chapter

By Peter J. Blau
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... replicate block specimens were tested, each sliding on a new ring. On closer examination of the measurement methods, a number of assumptions and potential sources of error are found. In using weight measurement, it is assumed that the specimens were completely cleaned of wear debris deposits before weighing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... intergranular and to determine if the fracture part is specific to any phase or constituent present. Although such specimens can be examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), light microscopy is more efficient for such work, and certain information, such as the color or polarization response of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... torsion to deformation levels equivalent to a true axial strain of 5 or more in tension, or a reduction of 90 to 95% in compression. Another attractive feature of the torsion test is that a constant true strain rate can be imposed on any given annular region of the specimen by simply twisting one end...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003058
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... ceramic specimen itself. Photographs are useful in documenting the findings. They should, of course, include a reference scale as well as specification of the optical components of the photographic system, such as crossed polars and sensitive tint plates, where applicable, and mode of operation (in the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... and compositional information regarding the specimen. The SEM was invented in 1937 ( Ref 1 ) and was first commercialized in 1965 ( Ref 2 ). There have been continual improvements in SEM resolution, dependability, ease of operation, and reduction in instrument size. Scanning electron microscopes are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... breakdown temperature ranges for ingot structures. In this test, a wedge-shaped piece of metal is machined from the ingot ( Fig. 2 ) and forged between flat, parallel dies. The overall dimensions of the wedge are selected on the basis of initial grain size. Large-grain materials require large specimens, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.9781627081764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... steel specimens coated with QQ-P-416, type I cadmium plating at thicknesses of 5.1, 12.7, and 25.4 μm, or 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mil). Only cadmium replacements that could be applied at thicknesses of 12.7 μm (0.5 mil) or less were included in the analysis. Following are the terms used to describe the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... 5% NaCl solution and characterization using the A through D rating system ( Ref 1 ) is shown in Fig. 1 . Another way of using the data acquired from such an inspection is illustrated in Fig. 2 , which shows a plot of the percentage of replicate specimens holding a particular rating versus the log...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003086
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... conditions accompanying the transfer of heat. One is the specific heat capacity while maintaining the specimen volume constant, C v ; the other is for constant external pressure, C p . The magnitude of C p is always greater than C v ; however, this difference is very slight for most solid materials...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... These concepts provide a basis to define a critical stress-intensity factor, K c , for the onset of crack growth as a material property independent of specimen size and geometry for many conditions of loading and environment. In general, when the specimen thickness and the in-plane dimensions near the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... stress in the gage section varies with time. However, it is sometimes desirable or necessary to obtain test data under constant-stress conditions, where the applied load is adjusted as the length of the specimen changes to maintain constant stress on the specimen. Constant-stress testing is used to...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... ( Ref 7 ) In the XRFS technique, the count rate that is obtained from a particular element when a specimen is irradiated is proportional to the concentration of that element. Thus, if the count rate for the element in a sample is compared to the count rate of a standard of known composition, the...