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specimen preparation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to premature failures. The article presents a practical approach to sample selection and specimen preparation, measurement location selection, and measurement depth selection; measurement validation is outlined as well. A number of case studies and examples are cited. The article also briefly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... orientations, and it produces a rough appearance in originally smoothly machined specimens. A macro ductile tensile fracture is of cup-and-cone shape. Fig. 4 Stainless steel bolt before and after tensile test, just before final failure Ductile dimples, or microvoid coalescence, are exhibited by a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... The discussion covers the general principles, equipment used, specimen preparation process, calibration conditions, data analysis steps, and examples of the applications and interpretation of TMA. Thermomechanical analysis Thermomechanical analysis (TMA) is a thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006648
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... by a discussion on the various components of a GDMS system as well as commercial GDMS instruments. A description of processes involved in specimen preparation and cleaning in GDMS is then presented. Various problems pertinent to multielemental calibrations in GDMS are discussed along with measures to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006672
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is the most common thermal technique for polymer characterization. This article provides a detailed account of the various factors and processes involved in DSC. The discussion covers the equipment used, specimen preparation process, calibration...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... various criteria to be considered for specimen preparation and calibration of TGAs. The use of thermogravimetric analysis data in the assessment of failure analysis of plastics and the combined usage of TGA with other techniques to understand the changes in the sample are also covered. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article reviews many commonly used stereological counting measurements and the relationships based on these parameters. The discussion covers the processes involved in sampling and specimen preparation. Quantitative microstructural measurements are described including volume...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006639
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article focuses on the principles and applications of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for the analysis of elemental and chemical composition. The discussion covers the nomenclature, instruments, and specimen preparation process of XPS. Some of the factors pertinent to the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006661
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article focuses on the principles and applications of thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) use to study adsorption, desorption, and reaction of adsorbed atoms and molecules on surfaces. The discussion provides information on various components of and specimen preparation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... involved in preparation of test specimen for DMA measurements. Some factors to be considered when calibrating the DMA instrument are provided, along with a description on processes for interpreting the temperature and frequency dependence of DMA curves as well as the applications of DMA. dynamic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... specimen preparation. In this case, electron-transparent coupons 20 by 10 μm 2 are fabricated using the FIB and are mounted on a half-cut grid, as shown in Fig. 5(c) . More details about the FIB can be found elsewhere in this Volume. Fig. 5 (a) Typical transmission electron microscopy (TEM...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) techniques are used to characterize samples in the form of loose powders, aggregates of finely divided material or polycrystalline specimens. This article provides a detailed account of XRPD. It begins with a discussion on XRPD instrumentation and the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... Scanning electron microscopy is amenable to a broad array of samples, but there are some limitations. Conventionally, samples should be electrically grounded to the holder and SEM stage. As such, solid specimens that are electrically conductive require no sample preparation. Nonconductive solids can be...
Book Chapter

By S. Lampman
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006645
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... the peaks for Zn Kα and Cu Kβ, or completely unresolved, such as those for Mn Kα and Ba Lα 2,3 . The superior resolution of the WDS often makes it the spectrometer of choice for the heavier elements in a specimen (atomic number Z > 20), because they produce L- or M-family x-rays, which will often...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... weathered copper leaf (width: 4 cm, or 1.6 in.) exhibiting patina. Republished from Ref 3 with permission of Canadian Science Publishing (CSP); permission conveyed through Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. In preparing a powder specimen for μXRD analysis, it is important to remember that with a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... instrumentation capable of measuring nanoscale spectroscopic and thus chemical maps (see the section “Measuring Chemical Composition at the Nanoscale Level” in this article). The probe in an AFM can modify the surface of a specimen. There are several options for AFM lithography: The probe can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... neutron diffraction, powder diffraction, and pair distribution function analysis. The relationship between detector space and reciprocal space are presented. Various factors involved in sample preparation, calibration, and techniques used for analyzing diffraction data are described. The article also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... diffraction crystallographic texture AUTOMATED ELECTRON BACKSCATTER DIFFRACTION (EBSD) is a technique that allows the crystallography of a sample to be determined in a suitably equipped scanning electron microscope (SEM). In brief, a prepared specimen that is flat and free from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... care as this step introduces the greatest amount of damage in the preparation sequence. Every step must be performed properly because the removal rate of the next step may not be adequate to remove the damage from the previous step. You cannot interpret what you cannot see. Details of specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... solution for analysis) is often diluted in water to obtain a final specimen suitable for analysis ( Ref 2 ). The ICP-OES technique exhibits the unique properties of providing simultaneous multielement (up to 70) analysis within a few minutes, as well as ensuring over 6 orders of magnitude dynamic range...