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specimen extraction

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003746
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... analysis. consumable-abrasive cutting failure analysis metallographic sectioning nonconsumable-abrasive cutting specimen extraction SECTIONING, the removal of a conveniently sized and representative specimen from a larger piece, is the first major operation in the preparation...
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 11 Nozzle joint with marking to extract a full-thickness specimen More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003737
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract This article discusses the specimen preparation of three types of cast and wrought heat-resistant alloys: iron-base, nickel-base, and cobalt-base. Specimen preparation involves sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing, and etching. The article illustrates the microstructural...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... during quenching. This program can be used to produce graphical representations of the heat-extraction dynamics during quenching. Examples for a stainless steel specimen (50 mm in diameter by 200 mm long) at 16, 42, 88, and 120 s after immersion are shown in Fig. 3 for the mineral oil (top) and 25% PAG...
Image
Published: 01 January 1986
Fig. 34 Procedure used to produce single-stage extraction replicas for the analysis of small particles originally embedded in a matrix. (a) The original material with particles embedded in a matrix. (b) The particles have been etched to stand in relief. (c) The specimen is coated with a carbon More
Image
Published: 01 January 1987
Fig. 3 Procedure used to produce single-stage extraction replicas for the analysis of small particles originally embedded in a matrix. (a) The original material with particles embedded in a matrix. (b) The particles have been etched to stand in relief. (c) The specimen is coated with a carbon More
Image
Published: 01 December 2009
Fig. 15 Deformation gradient histories extracted from the continuum-scale simulation and applied to the crystal-scale meshes corresponding to diffraction volumes along the specimen centerplane. Scale is in seconds; hold times for diffraction measurements have been omitted. More
Image
Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 3 Heat-extraction dynamics represented by computer simulations of temperature fields during quenching of stainless steel specimens. The two-dimensional simulations are based on heat-transfer coefficients obtained using the Liščić/Nanmac probe (calculation program by B. Smoljan; graphical More
Image
Published: 01 January 1987
Fig. 100 Fracture in a thermally embrittled cobalt-free high-titanium maraging steel. (a) Secondary electron image of fracture surface. 1300 ×. (b) TEM extraction fractograph. 2150 ×. (c) Light micrograph of fracture edge, 260 ×. (d) Light micrograph of internal cracks, 260 ×. Light micrograph More
Image
Published: 01 January 1987
Fig. 4 Transmission electron stereo pair at 3300 × showing grain-boundary precipitates in an extraction replica taken from the fracture surface of a cobalt-free maraging steel that was solution annealed at 815 °C (1500 °F) for 1 h and air cooled, followed by aging at 480 °C (900 °F) for 3 h More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
.... A third technique, extraction replication, is used to examine and characterize small particles embedded in a matrix, such as small second-phase particles in a steel. Direct Observation of Thin-Foil Specimens As mentioned above, there have been reported cases where TEM thin-foil fracture specimens...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... properties of the material may need to be determined. In most cases, if the specimens were extracted from the proper location, determination of these properties confirms that the castings met the expected values. The mechanical test results, along with the microstructure, often confirm that the casting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is relatively fast, and the requisite skill level for the operator is lower than other analytical techniques. A benefit of using spark-emission OES is that, in some cases, an analytical specimen does not need to be extracted from the bulk material if a suitable location is available on the sample...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001746
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... of specimen combustion systems deliver the extracted material before complete reduction. In these carbon and sulfur to the detection system as addition to efficiency, other factors include cases, a reduced sample weight to accelera- CO2 and S02. Determinators detect these the contribution of carbon or sulfur...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... of view of the thin specimen, but in a different form. Information formed at the back focal plane is called an electron diffraction pattern, which contains structural information about the specimen. Therefore, structural information about the specimen can be extracted efficiently by analyzing the electron...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006740
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... growth-rate chart and an R -curve chart. The fatigue crack growth-rate chart was tested using a compact tension (CT) specimen according to ASTM E647-15, “Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fatigue Crack Growth Rates.” A typical L-T orientation crack growth-rate curve is shown for a 200-mm (8...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in specimen extraction; steel plate does. Because plate may be quite thick, it often is necessary to examine specimens from three or more locations in order to observe true conditions. Extraction of specimens from a thick plate is likely to require a considerable amount of cutting. Various machining methods...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003720
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... and Specimen Extraction” in this Volume). This area must be chosen to represent the unique features of a specific zone of interest or the general features of a part or component selected for process characterization or quality assurance. The selected region of the specimen must then be removed from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...% in the case, specimens are difficult to extract and prepare. In the metallographic study of carburized steel, the structure of the high-carbon case is usually very important. The intended microstructure of carburized steel is essentially a lightly tempered high-carbon martensite case with decreasing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., breaking, or shearing (see the article “Metallographic Sectioning and Specimen Extraction” in this Volume). Because zinc alloys are comparatively soft, final sectioning of specimens is sometimes performed using special techniques. Either abrasive or diamond wheels are employed, because they produce less...