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specimen extraction

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... calculating temperature fields during quenching. This program can be used to produce graphical representations of the heat-extraction dynamics during quenching. Examples for a stainless steel specimen (50 mm in diameter by 200 mm long) at 16, 42, 88, and 120 s after immersion are shown in Fig. 3 for the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... identifying precipitates in metallic, ceramic, or glass systems. If the particles (precipitates) to be studied are large enough (>100 nm in diameter), it should be possible to examine them directly in a thin-foil specimen. If the particles are smaller, it is best to extract them from the matrix by using...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
...-extraction characteristics of a liquid quenchant. It provides information on heat generated microstructural field evolution and information on the analysis and characterization of heat transfer boundary conditions. heat transfer liquid quenching microstructural evolution quenching heat transfer...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... (e.g., 100 K in bronze), the casting soundness was improved by increasing mold speed, ingate diameter, sprue diameter, and the product ( l × L ) of specimen size and sprue length. Mold speed, n , was found to be the most significant variable. For wide-interval alloys, optimal conditions ( Ref 3...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003088
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... challenge in engineering design. Performance specifications, risk and hazard analysis, design process, design for manufacture and assembly, design for quality, reliability in design, and redesign are considered for functional requirements. Life-cycle analysis considers raw-material extraction from the earth...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-term laboratory and plant exposures of stressed specimens have not revealed any susceptibility to cracking. The presence of chlorates or oxidizable sulfur compounds increases the corrosive effect of caustics on nickel. Nickel-copper alloys are not as resistant as pure nickel to the corrosive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... from the quenched end of the Jominy specimen, for each time t 8/5 , the corresponding Jominy distance can be read, as shown in Fig. 17 . Fig. 17 Relation between time of cooling from 800 to 500 °C (1470 to 930 °F) ( t 8/5 ) and the Jominy distance. Source: Ref 14 The next step is to...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... direction. Most techniques for preparing metallographic specimens of coated steel sheet are the same as those used for preparing specimens of uncoated steel sheet, with minor variations and precautions. Steel tube and pipe do not present any special problems in specimen extraction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006648
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... by a discussion on the various components of a GDMS system as well as commercial GDMS instruments. A description of processes involved in specimen preparation and cleaning in GDMS is then presented. Various problems pertinent to multielemental calibrations in GDMS are discussed along with measures to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... the same field of view of the thin specimen, but in a different form. Information formed at the back focal plane is called an electron diffraction pattern, which contains structural information about the specimen. Therefore, structural information about the specimen can be extracted efficiently by...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... factors affecting the selection of casting process and the general designation system for aluminum alloys. It provides useful information on mechanical test methods, selection of proper test specimens for accurate test methods, characteristics of premium engineered castings, and advantages of hot...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) techniques are used to characterize samples in the form of loose powders, aggregates of finely divided material or polycrystalline specimens. This article provides a detailed account of XRPD. It begins with a discussion on XRPD instrumentation and the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... governed by the same considerations as in macroscopic examination, but the area that can conveniently be examined is usually more limited. Specimens for macroscopic examination are extracted from larger masses using common cutting techniques. Specimens of copper and copper alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... processes involved in the selection of metallurgical samples, the preparation and examination of metallographic specimens in failure analysis, and the analysis and interpretation of microstructures. Examination and evaluation of polymers and ceramic materials in failure analysis are also briefly discussed...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... determined. In most cases, if the specimens were extracted from the proper location, determination of these properties confirms that the castings met the expected values. The mechanical test results, along with the microstructure, often confirm that the casting was properly heat treated. Mechanical testing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... nonferrous materials. Sample preparation and analysis is relatively fast, and the requisite skill level for the operator is lower than other analytical techniques. A benefit of using spark-emission OES is that, in some cases, an analytical specimen does not need to be extracted from the bulk material if a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005935
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... transfer). Source: Ref 3 The duration of the cooling process of the workpiece and the spreading velocity of the wetting front depend on several physical properties of the specimen and the quenching medium. The departure of steam bubbles from the surface is a function of their size, which produces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... torsion to deformation levels equivalent to a true axial strain of 5 or more in tension, or a reduction of 90 to 95% in compression. Another attractive feature of the torsion test is that a constant true strain rate can be imposed on any given annular region of the specimen by simply twisting one end...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... = D 2 h , where h is the specimen thickness at any time in the test. If there is friction at the platen/specimen interface, then the specimen barrels as it deforms ( Fig. 3 ). When the friction is described by the interface friction factor 3 τ i / σ 0 both the slab...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... and compositional information regarding the specimen. The SEM was invented in 1937 ( Ref 1 ) and was first commercialized in 1965 ( Ref 2 ). There have been continual improvements in SEM resolution, dependability, ease of operation, and reduction in instrument size. Scanning electron microscopes are...