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specimen characterization

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005935
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... transfer). Source: Ref 3 The duration of the cooling process of the workpiece and the spreading velocity of the wetting front depend on several physical properties of the specimen and the quenching medium. The departure of steam bubbles from the surface is a function of their size, which produces...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... ( Ref 7 ) In the XRFS technique, the count rate that is obtained from a particular element when a specimen is irradiated is proportional to the concentration of that element. Thus, if the count rate for the element in a sample is compared to the count rate of a standard of known composition, the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Powder Diffraction” (XRPD) in this Volume describes techniques used to characterize samples in the form of loose powders, aggregates of finely divided material, or polycrystalline specimens. The powder method, as it is referred to, is a good phase-characterization tool, partly because it can routinely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627082136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005934
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... is to austenitize a number of test specimens of the alloy of interest. A test specimen could be a tensile bar obtained from a forging or casting of the alloy of interest. Typically, the test specimen is sufficiently small to ensure temperature uniformity during isothermal heat treatment. After...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... images that can be used to determine grain size, phase distribution, or porosity. This is particularly true when interfacial structures are to be examined. The importance of good specimen preparation for all structural analysis techniques cannot be overemphasized. In many cases, apparently featureless...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627081788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
..., and storage. The necessity for proper sample handling to avoid alteration of the surface prior to analysis cannot be overemphasized. Recommendations for sample handling to avoid contamination and damage to specimens for surface analysis are provided in ASTM E1078, “Standard Guide for Specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006649
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... to form a component. The compressibility of powder is the ability of a powder to be compacted into green-state compacts under pressure. It is determined by measuring the green density of a test specimen, which results from subjecting the powder to uniaxial compressive loading in a confining die ( Ref...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Figure 13 , from the same source, shows the relations between bar diameter and equivalent locations on the end-quench hardenability specimen, both for scale-free bars and for those scaled by heating in air. Fig. 13 Correlation curves for identical cooling times in end-quench hardenability specimens...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract This article describes the mechanisms and characteristics of heat transfer in the quenching of steel. This article describes the characterization of boiling heat transfer, including pool boiling, forced convective boiling, and rewetting, which plays a key role in defining the heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... The “surface” of a sample can mean different things to different people. To those performing analytical tests at the air/specimen interface of samples, the word surface can be anywhere from the top monolayer to as deep as several micrometers into the sample, depending on the depth of analysis of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... waves when used with a specific material ( Ref 21 , 22 ). An example of commercial wedge transducers for steel is shown in Fig. 3(a) . A variant for Rayleigh wave generation is to use a wedge of a surrogate material, such as steel, to then generate a Rayleigh wave in a specimen. This is shown in Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... from the quenched end of the Jominy specimen, for each time t 8/5 , the corresponding Jominy distance can be read, as shown in Fig. 17 . Fig. 17 Relation between time of cooling from 800 to 500 °C (1470 to 930 °F) ( t 8/5 ) and the Jominy distance. Source: Ref 14 The next step is to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) techniques are used to characterize samples in the form of loose powders, aggregates of finely divided material or polycrystalline specimens. This article provides a detailed account of XRPD. It begins with a discussion on XRPD instrumentation and the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract Thermomechanical analysis (TMA) is a thermal analysis technique in which the length of a specimen is precisely measured versus temperature and time as the specimen is subjected to controlled heating and cooling. This article discusses the various factors and processes involved in TMA...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006672
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is the most common thermal technique for polymer characterization. This article provides a detailed account of the various factors and processes involved in DSC. The discussion covers the equipment used, specimen preparation process, calibration...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... residual-stress fields in test specimens and engineering components ( Ref 49 ). When a component undergoes cyclic loading, it can be susceptible to fatigue. The fatigue life for a given component is often characterized with a Wöhler diagram or S - N curve, where S is defined as the total stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and fracture. Next, the mechanisms of void nucleation and void coalescence are briefly described. Macroscale and microscale appearances of ductile and brittle fracture are then discussed for various specimen geometries (smooth cylindrical and prismatic) and loading conditions (e.g., tension...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... stripping, organic-solvent cleaning, water-base detergent cleaning, cathodic cleaning, and chemical-etch cleaning. cleaning cracks fractography nondestructive inspection specimen preparation specimen preservation specimen sectioning steel fracture FRACTURE SURFACES are fragile and subject...