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spatial distribution

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006502
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... in view of their role in procedure development. Power Density Interaction Time Laser Beam Power Laser Beam Diameter Laser Beam Spatial Distribution Absorptivity Traverse Speed Laser Welding Efficiency Plasma Suppression and Shielding Gas Laser welds can have the typical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... includes information on independent process variables such as incident laser beam power and diameter, laser beam spatial distribution, traverse speed, shielding gas, depth of focus and focal position, weld design, and gap size. Dependent variables, including depth of penetration, microstructure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of microstructural features; derived microstructural properties; feature specific size, shape, and orientation distributions; and descriptors of microstructural spatial clustering and correlations. It emphasizes on the practical aspects of the measurement techniques and applications. The article also provides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... it is the power density that determines the depth of penetration and joining rate for the process, not the total power of the source. Therefore, beam diameter and spatial distribution of the laser-beam energy play an extremely important role because they determine the area of incidence. Two other variables...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... 81 Fig. 22 Final microstructure obtained from initially (a) randomly and (b) uniformly distributed precipitates and (c) the corresponding growth kinetics showing the effect of particle spatial and size distribution on growth kinetics ( Ref 88 ). Source: Ref 37 Fig. 24 Example...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005603
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... for defining the spatial distribution of energy as a Gaussian function, it is appropriate to use the radius that provides an area under the distribution equal to 1−(1/e 3 ). However, for laser beam welding, the beam radius representing the usable energy is often reported as 1−(1/e 2 ), which represents 86.5...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... issues while fully utilizing outstanding wear properties, primary silicon crystals should be controlled to uniform small size and have uniform spatial distribution. This can be accomplished by adding phosphorus to the melt, thus creating an abundance of AlP 3 nuclei suitable for initiating primary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001481
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... material from the filler wire, and, in many cases, the significant indentation of the weld-puddle surface, as well as a spatially distributed heat flux on the surface to represent radiation energy from the arc and positive ion impingement. Accurate representations of these phenomena are so complex...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... acquisition image processing algorithms manual stereological analysis quantitative image analysis shape quantification spatial distribution specimen preparation stereological parameters three-dimensional analysis PROGRESS in production technology and materials science has forced extensive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... When a microstructure is represented by a spatial distribution of the solute concentration, the field variable can be defined as the mole fraction of the solute: (Eq 3) ϕ = X ( r , t ) Naturally, for a multicomponent alloy, the field can be defined as a set of n − 1 composition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... has its trade-offs. To understand them, the basic concepts of sampling, resolution, and quantization must be presented first. Sampling, Spatial Frequency, Resolution, and Quantization Figure 2(a) shows a cleaved silicon wafer in a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Fig. 2(b) shows...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005893
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... means the temperature field can be influenced to achieve the desired goal. Therefore, temperature distribution is defined as an output controlled function of the process. It is important to recognize that a temperature field varies with time and spatial coordinates within the workpiece volume...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... (<10 −7 Pa, or 1 × 10 −9 torr). Typical applications for AES include: Microscopic particle identification Passive oxide film thickness on metal components Thin films of contamination on components Quantification of light-element surface films Mapping spatial distribution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... In (e), the fourth stage of the cascade includes new grains at the original grain boundaries. The grain and dislocation structures generated during a deformation pass determine the stored energy and its spatial distribution in the material at the end of a pass. These in turn determine the rate...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
.... Finally, a secondary ion image of the surface can be generated to provide a spatially resolved analysis of the surface, near surface, or bulk of the solid. This article will focus on the principles and applications of high sputter rate dynamic SIMS for depth profiling and bulk impurity analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... In contrast, the ion microscope is a direct-imaging system in which the secondary ions are simultaneously collected over the entire imaged area ( Fig. 5 , 18b ). A strong electrostatic field between the specimen and the immersion lens preserves the spatial distribution of the emitted secondary ions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... factor and thereby the cooling curve, as compared with a perfectly random spatial distribution. The same approach was also used to investigate the shape of eutectic grains solidifying in a temperature gradient ( Ref 42 ). It was also coupled with the calculation of heat flow on the scale of an entire...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
...), and elucidates the qualitative analysis of the major constituents of EDS and WDS. The article includes information on the analog and digital compositional mapping of elemental distribution, and describes the strengths and weaknesses of WDS and EDS spectrometers in X-ray mapping. It also outlines the application...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... of orientation zone (ORZ) distribution mapping based on (a) a series of selected-area electron diffraction patterns and (b) a series precession electron diffraction patterns, both obtained in the scanning transmission electron microscopy mode. VBF, virtual bright-field. Source: Ref 29 . Reprinted under...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
...-radical polymerization), shrinkage of cured resin, and mechanical response, to include residual stresses. Just as in lumped-parameter modeling, a model of irradiance is required that captures the spatial and temporal distributions of incident radiation that occur using either laser-scanning or pattern...