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spatial distribution

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., the distribution of particles and the particle energy depend on the material, laser wavelength, laser fluence, and ambient composition and pressure. The characteristics are both temporally and spatially dependent. Presumably, this is the reason that optimized deposition conditions vary from system to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... scanning tunneling microscopy) and stereochemistry (infrared and Raman spectroscopy). Recent trends are the development of increased spatial resolution (e.g., toward the 10 nm region and below in AES and SIMS) and improved databases and evaluation software for quantitative analysis. With the exception of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
...), and the errors associated with limitations of the spatial and angular resolution inherent to the experiment ( Ref 26 ). Crucial for a recrystallization simulation is the need to make some assumption about the stored-energy distribution based on the EBSD pattern quality ( Ref 27 ). The EBSD maps are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... this technique include image doubling due to the K α doublet as well as significant loss of spatial resolution with increasing specimen-film distance. This technique often is used for initial assessment of crystals of new materials ( Ref 20 ). The transmission Berg-Barrett method ( Fig. 8b ) (also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... ✔ ✗ Penetrating (better sample averaging) ✔ ✗ Excellent time and spatial resolution ✗ ✔ Sensitive to magnetic order ✔ ✗ Neutrons are either produced in a nuclear reactor from natural or enriched fission materials or extracted by means of high-energy protons impinging on a neutron-rich element...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... adequate to allow liquid crystals to show transient changes in temperature. The spatial resolution obtainable can be as small as 0.02 mm (0.0008 in.). In addition, because the color change is generally reversible, anomalies can be evaluated by repeating the test as many times as needed. Techniques for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... through continuous fields such as the atomic concentration or long-range-order parameters. The spatial and temporal evolution of the microstructure is then driven by differential equations obeyed by these fields. Because this technique is the object of the article “Phase-Field Modeling of Microstructure...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... information on the capabilities, typical uses, spatial resolution, elemental analysis detection threshold and precision, limitations, sample requirements, and operating principles of the scanning auger microprobe. electron probe microanalysis scanning auger microprobe scanning electron microscopy...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005216
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Macrosegregation refers to spatial variations in composition that occur in metal alloy castings and range in scale from several millimeters to centimeters or even meters. This article presents a derivative approach for understanding the mechanism of macrosegregation induced by flow of...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... and applications of phase field method and cellular automaton method for modeling the direct evolution of structure at the intermediate length scales, where transport phenomena govern the spatial and temporal evolution of the structure that involves nucleation and growth. casting cellular...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article focuses on the intermediate length scales, where transport phenomena govern the spatial and temporal evolution of a structure. It presents the cellular automaton (CA) and phase field (PF) methods that represent the state of the art for modeling macrostructure and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... microscope and describes transmission Kikuchi diffraction. It begins with a discussion on the origins of EBSD and the collection of EBSD patterns. This is followed by sections providing information on EBSD spatial resolution and system operation of EBSD. Various factors pertinent to perform an EBSD...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... gradients (similar to Fig. 22 b, but with ∼1 μm spatial resolution) X-ray mapping to show how elements of interest are concentrated or depleted in different micro-areas or microstructural features ( Fig. 11 ) Fig. 11 Electron microprobe elemental map showing distributions of elements in...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... while fully utilizing outstanding wear properties, primary silicon crystals should be controlled to uniform small size and have uniform spatial distribution. This can be accomplished by adding phosphorus to the melt, thus creating an abundance of AlP 3 nuclei suitable for initiating primary silicon...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... ), pseudospinodal decomposition ( Ref 7 , 8 , 9 ), and spinodal decomposition of intermediate α phase obtained via congruent β → α transformation ( Ref 10 ). These TPs provide ample opportunities to engineer desired microstructures in terms of size, shape, and spatial distribution of α precipitates within the β...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... 2) δ E / δ ϕ ( r , t ) is a d -dimensional vector, where d is the total degrees of freedom of the system. When a microstructure is represented by a spatial distribution of the solute concentration, the field variable can be defined as the mole fraction of the solute: (Eq 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... of a fracture surface are usually preferentially, rather than randomly, oriented. This presents a difficult sampling problem if the stereological relationships based on random sampling and measurements are to be used. For example, to determine the spatial angular distribution of facets, a prohibitive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... weight of the sample material. The primary strengths of EDS analysis are rapid data collection and high spatial resolution ( Fig. 13 , 14 ). A qualitative or semiquantitative analysis can be obtained is less than 1 min. Detailed maps of elemental distribution on a surface can be obtained in just a few...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... These analyses have also been conducted using x-ray diffraction (XRD). However, structural analysis by electron diffraction in TEM generally offers much higher spatial resolution than is achievable by XRD. Fundamental principles of electron diffraction, together with some electron diffraction methods...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... the particle size and shape distribution in raw materials, as well as similar features in green and fired ceramics. Other important aspects are the distribution of various phases in a ceramic, the size and spatial distribution of porosity, the nature of surface and volume flaws, and the degree of...