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spatial correlations

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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... and applications of phase field method and cellular automaton method for modeling the direct evolution of structure at the intermediate length scales, where transport phenomena govern the spatial and temporal evolution of the structure that involves nucleation and growth. casting cellular...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article focuses on the intermediate length scales, where transport phenomena govern the spatial and temporal evolution of a structure. It presents the cellular automaton (CA) and phase field (PF) methods that represent the state of the art for modeling macrostructure and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... microscope and describes transmission Kikuchi diffraction. It begins with a discussion on the origins of EBSD and the collection of EBSD patterns. This is followed by sections providing information on EBSD spatial resolution and system operation of EBSD. Various factors pertinent to perform an EBSD...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005424
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... distribution. From there, one can build virtual polycrystals that include aspects of the grain size and shape distributions, lattice orientations that are drawn from nonuniform distributions (textures), spatial correlations of lattice orientation, and phase topologies, including anisotropic distributions of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... devices were first produced for clinical applications; in 2005, CT devices for dimensional metrology were put on the market. This is not fortuitous, because the latter must meet higher requirements in terms of accuracy and spatial resolution and moreover require more powerful sources and advanced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... calculations can quickly become very computationally challenging, with increasing system size and complexity. Practical application of electronic structure methods invariably includes chemical, spatial, or temporal approximations that n curtail a faithful representation of the actual materials problem. However...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... opened new avenues toward the understanding of fracture structures in three dimensions. Researchers increasingly used quantitative measurements on SEM photomicrographs. Although direct measurements on these projected images do not yield correct spatial information, a large step forward was being taken...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... sensitivity and high spatial resolution typically are required, and this necessitates the use of higher-cost quantum detector type IR cameras as opposed to lower-cost microbolometer designs. Some of the early work in this area was performed by Stanley et al. ( Ref 41 , 42 ), who explored methods and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... algorithm. In this regard, CA simulations reveal little more about the process of recrystallization than was known 70 years ago. The power of the approach is that the local spatial evolution can be coupled with the temporal evolution, but to include the spatial component, the CA needs experimental data...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... anisotropy with well-defined habit planes, and highly correlated spatial distribution of precipitates, as seen in titanium alloys (e.g., Fig. 4 ), and the complicated phase-transformation pathways and mechanisms mentioned previously pose serious challenges to existing “off-the-shelf” modeling tools. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005426
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... that could be approximated as spatially one- or two-dimensional; the time and expense of performing three-dimensional calculations remained prohibitive. Over the last 30 years, however, CFD calculations of three-dimensional flows have become more common. This has heightened enormously the interest in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006452
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... digital. In the early 1980s, the first uses of ultrasonic arrays for NDE applications were reported ( Ref 3 ). Initially, the NDE array systems were essentially slightly modified medical ones, the modification sometimes being little more than changing the speed of sound used to determine the spatial...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... microscopy Physical morphology True color, ambient conditions, few sample limitations Limited magnification, low depth of field Scanning electron microscopy Physical morphology Spatial resolution, rapid data collection Potentially destructive, size restrictions, vacuum compatibility Atomic force...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., the distribution of particles and the particle energy depend on the material, laser wavelength, laser fluence, and ambient composition and pressure. The characteristics are both temporally and spatially dependent. Presumably, this is the reason that optimized deposition conditions vary from system to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... microstructure involves a large number of variables (one or several for each spatial coordinate, r , with each one regarded as a degree of freedom). An effective way to formulate their time evolution (the kinetics of microstructure change) is to define a total energy of the system and derive the kinetics along...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... a silicon strip. These detectors offer high speed for data collection, high spatial resolution, high count rate before saturation, and high dynamic range. A further improvement in μXRD analysis was the development of improved 2-D detectors. One replacement for photographic film is the image...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
.... This artifact is eliminated by stereo imaging, which involves recording the same field of view twice, each at slightly different orientations, then simultaneously viewing the stereo pair. The correct relationships are restored, and valid spatial judgments replace subjective impressions. The tilt...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006465
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... developed over decades of work, application can be challenging and in some cases impossible for many of the more complex AM components. These factors include complex part geometry (internal and external features), surface condition, spatial microstructure variability, and inspection modality with x-ray or...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005208
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... evolves in space, x , and time, t . Transport phenomena is the generic name used to describe the dynamical and spatial aspects of the system behavior. There are more specific names. The study of energy transport, embodied in the temperature field T ( x , t ), is called heat transfer. The transport of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... composition, C , and temperature, T . However, there is no information in the diagram about how a system evolves in space, x , and time, t . Transport phenomena is the generic name used to describe the dynamical and spatial aspects of the system behavior. There are more specific names. The study of energy...