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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... and electronic systems, plumbing systems, masts, spars, and rigging. References References 1. Collier E. , Boatowner's Guide to Corrosion: A Complete Reference for Boatowners and Marine Professionals , International Marine Publishing , 2001 2. “Seacocks, Thru-Hull Connections and Drain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003467
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... analysis of Kevlar/epoxy paddle surface showing silicon peaks (small peaks on the right) Fig. 1 Separation and fracture of internal Kevlar/epoxy paddle and external carbon/epoxy sleeve of failed helicopter blade Fig. 8 Section of failed wing spar Fig. 9 Lower spar cap showing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
...-spar carry-through forging of aluminum alloy 7075-T6. The crack was discovered during inspection after 5269 h of service and was opened up. The external surface at edge C-C had been machined after forging. The regions marked A contain fatigue features that originated at a flaw (marked B-B) extending...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006741
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... Al-Mg-Zn-Cu alloy with zirconium that offers a less quench-sensitive alloy for properties in thicker sections for airframe structures such as wing ribs, spars, and skins, as well as fuselage frames and floor beams. This datasheet provides information on key alloy metallurgy and processing effects...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... fatigue test of graphite-epoxy specimen Fig. 9 Edge replica of graphite-epoxy specimen Fig. 8 Mating fracture surfaces of an adhesively bonded wing skin and wing spar. ∼0.2× Abstract Abstract Mechanical and environmental loadings cause a variety of failure modes in composites...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... fitting, front spar sections, and honeycomb core, were existing aluminum parts. The composite spoiler was completely interchangeable with the standard aluminum version. By July 1973, the Boeing Commercial Airplane Company had placed 111 composite spoilers in regular airline service for evaluation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002416
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... mm thick AS4/3501-6 coupons and panels with three bolted spars Fig. 22 Damage diameter versus impacter kinetic energy for falling-weight impact tests and gas-gun tests conducted on [45/0/−45/90] 6s AS4/3501-6 laminates Fig. 23 Impact force versus impacter mass for 73 J impacts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003428
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... by material squeeze-out on the edges of the party boundary. Lower-viscosity materials are used for fay sealing thin sheets. When thick parts are assembled, a higher- viscosity material is used. Longer assembly time materials are required for large assemblies, such as large skins over spars, ribs, stringers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... punctures to the 0.51 mm (0.020 in.) facings or dings in the trailing edge that will cause local delaminations. There also might be some surface bruising that crushes the honeycomb core without damaging the facesheets. If any damage is not too close to the fitting or front spar, there is no limit...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Laminating a prepreg mast section. Courtesy of Southern Spars Fig. 8 Prepreg hull on male mold prior to consolidation Fig. 11 Mast tooling. Courtesy of Marten Spars Fig. 13 Rudder stock. Courtesy of Yachting Developments Fig. 10 Schematic of impregnator/wet-out machine...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006612
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... mechanical properties per AMS 4330 are presented in Table 2. Alloy 2297 plates are especially suited for fatigue-critical components. Moderate strength level with high damage tolerance and corrosion characteristics make it very attractive for frames, spars, and bulkheads. It has been successfully used...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003364
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... parts. One challenging application is the sine wave spars. Initially, standard prepreg was used, but fiber distortion was encountered due to the complexity of the spar shape. The RTM process solved this and other fabrication problems, while reducing manufacturing cost by 20%. The tight dimensional...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... of the fuselage (butt line). (c) Aft and wing Fig. 11 Moisture accumulation from blocked drain Fig. 12 Fuselage drainage and drain valve design. Drain locations are indicated as closed circles in the lower plan view Fig. 13 Wing front spar with corrosion sites. Sealant locations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003425
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Osprey door Fig. 12 Co-consolidated cockpit floor Fig. 13 Schematic for ultrasonic welder and multiunit weld machine. Source: Ref 30 , 31 Fig. 14 Schematic for resistance weld of rib to spar Fig. 15 Resistance welding wing substructure using copper foil...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006740
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
...-T7651 plate have been used typically for parts requiring a high level of tensile properties in conjunction with good fracture toughness and moderate resistance to stress corrosion cracking in aerospace applications such as wing-box ribs and spars; fuselage primary structural elements such as frames...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006735
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
..., and other alloys for use in critical intermediate thickness applications. These include but are not limited to spar, rib, and integrally machined structural parts for new, derivative, and retrofit aircraft. aluminum alloy 7065 aluminum alloy plates corrosion resistant plates fracture toughness high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003481
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
.... Warren Q. , A Builder's Designer , Professional Boatbuilder , Oct/Nov 1999 , p 66 – 80 48. Lazarus P. , Reporting on the Resin Infusion Front , Professional Boatbuilder , Dec/Jan 1997 , p 30 – 34 49. Calder N. , Carbon Fiber Spars , Professional Boatbuilder...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Main machine axes of a gurney-type automated tape layer. The x-axis can be extended in 3.7 m (12 ft) increments. Fig. 5 One layer of angled courses for a vertical stabilizer ply Fig. 6 Airbus A330/340 HTP contour lower skin with stringers, rib shear ties, and spar caps integrated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003444
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... for a spar-to-skin joint. GR/EP, graphite/epoxy; GL/EP, glass/epoxy Fig. 25 Scarfed joint specimen for a spar-to-skin joint. GR/EP, graphite/epoxy Fig. 26 Double-lap, two-step joint specimen configuration Fig. 27 Geometry of double-lap test specimens. The adherend is [0] 16...