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spalling fatigue failure

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... balls surfaces. It discusses the propagation of fatigue cracks involved in rolling contacts. The characteristics of various types of RCF test machines are summarized. The article concludes with a discussion on the various failure modes of silicon nitride in rolling contact. These include the spalling...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... life expectancy and may cause a type of failure other than by rolling-contact fatigue. The life of a bearing is expressed as the number of revolutions, or the number of hours at a given speed, a bearing will complete before developing fatigue spalling. Life may vary from bearing to bearing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
...) at higher magnification Fig. 7 Shelly rail spall from wheel-rail contact fatigue. Source: Ref 5 Abstract Contact fatigue is a surface-pitting-type failure commonly found in ball or roller bearings. This article discusses the mechanisms of contact fatigue found in gears, cams, valves...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006358
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... , London , 1985 6. Widner R.L. and Littmann W.E. , Bearing Damage Analysis , Proceedings of the Mechanical Failures Prevention Group , Publ. 423, National Bureau of Standards , 1976 , p 67 – 84 7. Hoo J.J.C. , Ed., Rolling Contact Fatigue Testing of Bearing Steels , STP...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Table 1 Failure modes of gears Failure mode Type of failure Fatigue Tooth bending, surface contact (pitting or spalling), rolling contact, thermal fatigue Impact Tooth bending, tooth shear, tooth chipping, case crushing, torsional shear Wear Abrasive, adhesive Stress rupture...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are similar; for example, pitting and spalling are often used interchangeably in the European literature ( Fig. 1 ). Littmann ( Ref 17 ) has given an account of the contact fatigue damage classification system, and he identified six modes of fatigue failure—inclusion origin, subcase fatigue, surface origin...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... survey the entire component to obtain an overall understanding of the component and the significance of the fractured area Classify the fracture from a macroscopic viewpoint as ductile, brittle, fatigue, torsion, and so forth Determine the origin of failure by tracing the fracture back to its...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... Table 2 List of contact fatigue terminology used to describe the different fatigue mechanisms Macroscale Microscale Macropitting Pitting Initial Pitting Destructive Pitting Flaking Spalling Scabbing Shelling Fatigue wear Subcase Fatigue Case crushing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003720 16. Price C.E. and Cox D. , Observing Fatigue with the Nomarski Technique , Met. Prog. , Vol 123 , Feb 1983 , p 37 – 39 17. Vander Voort G.F. , Macroscopic Examination Procedures for Failure Analysis , Metallography in Failure Analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... ), repeating failures of Wankel engines by contact fatigue triggered development of a method for condition monitoring of an open-loop system. In contrast to the case of helicopter gearboxes, no maintenance manual and definition of baseline are available from the manufacturer of this system. In the second case...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Rolling-contact fatigue (RCF) is a common failure mode in components subjected to rolling or rolling-sliding contact. This article provides a basic understanding of RCF and a broad overview of materials and manufacturing techniques commonly used in industry to improve component life...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... on the number of stress cycles and results in small surface fatigue cracks. Small pits are formed, usually 0.5 to 1.0 mm (20 to 40 mils) in diameter. Large areas of material removal are known as spalling, and this form of surface degradation often has its origins as subsurface fatigue damage from cyclic rolling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... fatigue (rolling-contact fatigue, or RCF), but eventually RCF begins, and lines of travel caused by micropitting may appear on bearing surfaces. Rolling lines of travel can progress to visible pitting and even spalling. When the mechanical action of a fluid is involved in a tribological process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002376
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... of orthogonal shear). They perceived a change in the material near inclusions below the surface, microcrack development, and then propagation of the cracking to the surface with formation of a pit or spall. This mode of subsurface spall development has become the classical mode of fatigue failure for bearings...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... , Die Care Improves Die Life , in Die Tech '84 , American Die Casting Institute and Die Casting Research Foundation , Des Plaines, IL , 1984 , p 293 – 314 • Wollering W.R. and Oertle L.C. , Thermal Fatigue as a Cause of Die Failure , Paper 804, Trans. SDCE , Vol 4 , 1966...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003751
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... to determine the cause of a roll failure. Case examples are given later in this article. One example involved a spalling and breakage problem in D2 tool steel rolls for a rotary straightener used to straighten railroad rails in production. In the case of D2 steel rolls, the steel is very hard and has...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... of severe fatigue wear (spalling). Often-cited criteria include maximum orthogonal shear stress, octahedral shear stress, and von Mises stress, all of which are typically subsurface. Abrasive wear within rolling-element bearings is commonly due to the presence of foreign debris. Residue established...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to the occurrence of surface fatigue, subsurface crack growth and spalling ( Ref 12 , 14 , 15 , 16 ). Very large impact energies bring about failures due to surface fracture and produce rapid material removal ( Ref 17 , 18 ). This evolution of wear mechanisms, as the conditions in an impact contact become more...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...% of the stem wall, thus increasing the applied stresses in the remaining stem wall. Fracture shows a sharp transgranular characteristic suggesting cleavage or high cycle fatigue. Original magnification 55× Fig. 14 Uncoated incinerator liner near failure. Corrosion penetration from both inner...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006426
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
.... Fatigue failure (contact fatigue) is a key endurance criterion of the surfaces in rolling contact, and rolling-element fatigue has been recognized since the early 1900s by rolling bearing manufacturers because of the concentration of load in a small volume of the material with the geometry of rolling...