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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article briefly reviews the analysis methods for spalling of striking tools with emphasis on field tests conducted by A.H. Burn and on the laboratory tests of H.O. McIntire and G.K. Manning and of J.W. Lodge. It focuses on the metallography and fractography of spalling. The...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... balls surfaces. It discusses the propagation of fatigue cracks involved in rolling contacts. The characteristics of various types of RCF test machines are summarized. The article concludes with a discussion on the various failure modes of silicon nitride in rolling contact. These include the spalling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... and case-hardened parts are very different in initiation and propagation periods. Spalls (or more generally macropitting) may propagate slower and sometimes seem to stop for periods in carburized material, possibly because of the usually higher residual stresses near the surface than in through...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... Fig. 1 Scanning electron micrograph of a fatigue spall on a roller from a roller bearing after 630,000 cycles. Roller is AISI 1060 steel, hardened to 600 HV. Spall is 400 μm wide by 700 μm long. Fig. 2 Anatomy of a race spall in a ball bearing. (a) Typical delta shape with the apex...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006358
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... may be hidden from view as they grow below the contact surface. By the time cracks grow large enough to emerge at the surface and produce wear particles or delaminations, these particles may become large spalls or flakes, resulting in immediate component loss of function or efficiency. The first...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... – 456 10.1098/rsta.1914.0010 14. Hopkinson B. , The Pressure of a Blow , The Scientific Papers of Bertram Hopkinson , Cambridge University Press , 1921 , p 423 – 437 15. Meyers M.A. and Aimone C.T. , Dynamic Fracture (Spalling) of Metals , Prog. Mater. Sci. , Vol...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and spalling ( Ref 4 , 5 ) in conventional bearing steels ( Fig. 1 ) to delamination in hybrid ceramics ( Ref 6 ) and overlay coatings ( Ref 7 ), as discussed later. Contact geometry of the bodies subjected to RCF can be conforming (e.g., contact between the outer race and roller in a rolling-element...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... temperature, or contamination, will reduce life expectancy and may cause a type of failure other than by rolling-contact fatigue. The life of a bearing is expressed as the number of revolutions, or the number of hours at a given speed, a bearing will complete before developing fatigue spalling. Life may...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... story. Identification of the mechanisms, which will control the degree of advancement of the reaction, is also duly required. Kinetic models and kinetic data then are needed. In this context, the principles of penetration, dissolution, and spalling are considered. To make the appropriate...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... contact, such as fatigue, pitting, spalling, and galling. The bore that is press fit onto a shaft is subject to a definite amount of initial tensile stress. Also, any tendency for the bore to slip under the applied rotational forces will set up a unique type of wear between the two surfaces that leads to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000604
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
..., 2000×. Fig. 108 : Crack path of an imminent near-surface spall. SEM, 1000× (H.W. Leavenworth, Jr., U.S. Bureau of Mines) Fig. 98 Fig. 99 Fig. 100 Fig. 101 Fig. 104 Fig. 105 Fig. 106 Fig. 107 Fig. 108 ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
.... , Recovery and Recrystallization of Polycrystalline Nickel after Hot Working , Acta Metall. , Vol 36 , 1988 , p 1781 10.1016/0001-6160(88)90246-5 82. Kanel G.I. , Razorenov S.V. , Bogatch A. , Utkin A.V. , and Fortov V.E. , Spall Fracture Properties of Aluminum and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... brittle and prone to spalling than iron boride layers. Boriding of nickel-base superalloys is typically performed with very thin boride layer depths (5 to 15 μm, or 0.2 to 0.6 mil), because thicker boride layers are more prone to spalling. Boriding of titanium and its alloys has been performed using gas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Gray Iron Castings for Porcelain Enameling” C 664 “Standard Test Method for Thickness of Diffusion Coating” C 694 “Standard Test Method for Weight Loss (Mass Loss) of Sheet Steel during Immersion in Sulfuric Acid Solution” C 703 “Standard Test Methods for Spalling Resistance of Porcelain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005988
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... 10.1007/BF02670698 3. Blickensderfer R. , Tylczek J.H. , and Dodd J. , The Effect of Heat Treatment on Spalling of a Cr-Mo White Cast Iron , Wear of Materials , American Society of Mechanical Engineers , 1983 , p 471 – 476 4. Maratray F. and Poulalion A...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... 10.1007/BF02670698 4. Blickensderfer R. , Tylczek J.H. , and Dodd J. , The Effect of Heat Treatment on Spalling of a Cr-Mo White Cast Iron , Wear of Materials , American Society of Mechanical Engineers , 1983 , p 471 – 476 5. Maratray F. and Poulalion A...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
..., curved, curled, and ribbonlike Surface may be either smooth or rugged. Fatigue Cyclic stress variations, rolling contact Spalls: 10–100 (0.4–4), aspect ratio ≥10:1. Laminar: 50 to several hundreds (2–12), aspect ratio 5:1–50:1. Chunks: >5 (>0.2), aspect ratio <5:1. Small spheres: <5...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
.... Although the coating may crack or craze, it does not spall off under most conditions. The cracking or crazing, however, does open up the coating and may allow passage of corrodents to the metal surface. It is for this reason that major forming is done before enameling. Limited forming after enameling can...