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space and low-gravity environments

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001465
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... in space and low-gravity environments and describes the unique aspects of the space environment. It compares the applicable welding processes, namely, electron-beam welding, laser-beam welding, and gas-tungsten arc welding and examines the metallurgy of low-gravity welds. Steps taken to ensure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... and Low-Gravity Environments” seeks to address what has been done and provide some guidance for future development efforts. This Section also addresses the joining of nonmetallic and special-purpose materials. Although metals are generally the structural materials of choice, it is evident...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... solidification studies in reduced gravity. Solidification researchers needing extended-duration microgravity access require rocket-driven space flight into low-Earth orbits—defined as orbits with apogees between 150 and 300 nautical miles above the surface of the Earth. America's first space station, Skylab...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
...) with regular equiaxed grains and (e) at 1 g with a strong settling effect Experiments in the limit of diffusion-controlled heat and mass transport in the low-gravity environment of space, and free from sedimentation, eliminate the intricate interactions of various gravity-driven factors (fluid flow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... of all factors. Mild and Low-Alloy Steel-Covered Electrodes Stainless Steel Covered Electrodes Nickel and Copper Alloys Surfacing Welding Electrodes Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys Suffix Symbols Deposition Rates Welding Schedules Welder Training Procedures Gravity Welding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... of 100 m (330 ft). However, wet welds have been made on carbon steel structures at depths as low as 200 m (660 ft). Welding that is performed in a dry but high-pressure (hyperbaric) environment requires the construction of a chamber around the weld zone to create the dry habitat. The cost...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003474
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...General characteristics of thermoplastic and thermoset composites Table 1 General characteristics of thermoplastic and thermoset composites Property Thermoplastic composites Thermoset composites Fiber content Low to medium Medium to high Fiber type Continuous...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003038
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... strength-to-weight ratios are important, as in aircraft and aerospace applications. Carbon- and aramid-reinforced composites excel because of their low specific gravities and high strength and stiffness characteristics. High-modulus polyethylene fibers, with their very low specific gravity and high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006580
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... feed systems are high volume and low cost. These benefits drive the use of hopper feed and helical extruders in both melt and viscous extrusion 3D printing. These systems are common in high-volume production, for example, of plastic medical devices such as syringes and the first 3D-printed car ( Fig. 7...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... of different flight types considered may vary from about 25 for a complex military aircraft to as low as five or six for a commercial transport aircraft. Load factor spectra at the aircraft center of gravity are usually developed in the form of data about cumulative frequency of occurrence of incremental...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... the effect of water pressure on the formation of porosity in underwater gravity welding. The article concludes with a discussion on the practical applications of underwater welding. acicular ferrite grain-boundary ferrite heat-affected zone cracking low carbon steel microstructure porosity...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... climates. Rural atmospheres These are usually the least aggressive of the six atmospheric types. This is primarily due to the relatively low level of sulfur and other emissions found in such environments. Abstract Abstract This article provides information on the properties, compositions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... predictive evaluations of the entire casting process, including mold filling, solidification, microstructure, and thermomechanical simulations. It covers a wide range of casting processes and alloy systems, including high- and low-pressure die casting, sand casting, gravity die casting and tilt pouring...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.9781627081870
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003372
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... a tape that is then laminated with a resin. The resin is pyrolyzed to produce carbon in the preform. The silicon infiltration is then done to produce a low-porosity SiC-Si matrix. Fig. 3 Micrographs of a melt infiltrated composite reinforced with Sylramic SiC fiber. The preform was made from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003480
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... , pyrolitic graphite, a monolithic material, has very high in-plane thermal conductivity combined with a relatively low specific gravity of 2.5 ( Ref 13 ). In-plane thermal conductivities as high as 1600 to 1700 W/m · K are reported. This material is highly anisotropic, and the through-thickness conductivity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009078
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... structure as a result of low pressure in the facesheets and vacuum in the core during manufacturing. Voids are often found in the fillet regions because, in many cases, the core environment is under vacuum. Solvents can more easily vaporize and entrapped air can grow to a larger volume under reduced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... with carbon or aramid fibers is the necessary option. Improved flame retardance, smoke suppression, and low toxicity can be achieved with selection of highly filled acrylic resin. The best overall flame, smoke, and toxicity performance coupled with high-temperature property retention is achieved with phenolic...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... components. Exhaust manifolds are produced in stainless steel. The process has been demonstrated to produce hollow camshafts in chill iron and nodes for space frame construction in low-alloy steels. Fig. 6 Schematic showing the loose sand vacuum process. (a) Several molds, produced using any...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.../in.) Surface finish 6.5–12.5 μm (250–500) μin.) 4.0–10 μm (150–400 μin.) 1.5 μm (50 μin.); best finish of the three casting processes Gas porosity Lowest porosity possible with good technique Best pressure tightness; low porosity possible with good technique Porosity may be present Cooling rate...