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sound-emission measurement

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005935
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... of the phase transformation of steel and of the boiling process at the interface during the cooling process. The sound-pressure signal is captured by the hydrophone through sound-emission measurements that occur during steel quenching in different quenching media. The analysis of the results offers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006368
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... signal and the amount of cutting tool wear. The first step in vibroacoustic analysis is to measure the sound and vibration signals, then process the data to unveil the hidden information about the system. Hosseini Fouladi et al. ( Ref 7 ) measured sound signals produced by the generator mounted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0009152
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... Example application of a photosensor for monitoring part ejection. Source: Ref 16 Ultrasonic Sensors Ultrasonic sensors operate by emitting and receiving high-frequency sound waves. The frequency is usually on the order of 200 kHz, which is beyond the audible range of the human ear. When...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006400
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... and detection of leaks, rolling damage, and cracks. Acoustic emission testing is a CM technique that has been used to analyze emitted sound waves caused by defects or discontinuities. It is the phenomenon of transient waves generated due to the rapid release of strain energy caused by small deformations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.9781627081900
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... in the material. The frequency and wavelength are related by the equation: (Eq 2) f λ = c where f is frequency, and λ is wavelength. At interfaces, the sound energy transmitted or reflected depends on the acoustic impedance of each medium. The transmission (T) and reflection (R) of sound energy from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... with the radiography method over other NDE methods is the requirement for accessibility to both surfaces of the material to be tested. Ultrasound The ultrasonic method uses high-frequency sound waves to locate and measure flaws in welds. It can be used to inspect various materials such as metals, plastics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... method over other NDE methods is the requirement for accessibility to both surfaces of the material to be tested. Ultrasound The ultrasonic method uses high-frequency sound waves to locate and measure flaws in welds. It can be used to inspect various materials such as metals, plastics, composites...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006444
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... a microphone to detect sound emitted into the air (the direct sound must be blocked from the vibration source and fixturing). Note that sensors can have reduced sensitivity and even resonances at high frequencies, so stress levels potentially can be incorrectly evaluated. The laser vibrometer and laser...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... sound from going any further into the composite. Therefore, PE is usually limited to detection of the first occurring defect. By knowing the wave speed in the composite part, or through the use of reference standards, thickness or defect depth can be measured. Carbon/epoxy composite materials have...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005578
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
...-based, free-field microphone Brüel & Kjær-type 4939 was mounted several inches away from the weld zone and recorded the acoustic energy (in the form of sound pressure) that emanates from the friction welding process. The audio data were sampled at 50 kHz to account for potential signal content above...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... to a time-dependent field. A piezoelectric transducer bonded to the specimen could measure acoustic emissions, and the amplitude of MAE depends on the magnetostriction coefficient, frequency, and amplitude of the driving field. Because the stress alters the magnetocrystalline anisotropy, MAE should also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003653
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract This article focuses on the methods that are being developed for detecting and monitoring corrosion: electrochemical methods, electromagnetic or sound wave methods, fiber-optic technology, fluorescence methods, and the Diffracto Sight method. It reviews the importance of data...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... typically do not provide guidelines specific to an industry or process, but they do establish general rules for the control of unsafe and unhealthy conditions. Noise level is a measurement of sound wave energy (pressure). The standard unit of sound measurement is decibels (dB). The use of the decibel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... by 6 dB or half its original amplitude. The axis of the sound beam is now half on and half off the flaw and can be taken as delineating the flaw edge. This can be done to an accuracy of ±5 mm (0.2 in.). The width of a flaw also can be measured in an image, but it is generally too small...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005340
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... pressure filter tests electric resistivity tests reduced-pressure test ultrasonic technique THE FUNCTIONALITY of aluminum alloy castings is strongly dependent on casting soundness. This implies that such castings be virtually free of hydrogen porosity and entrained nonmetallic inclusions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... cost on an acceptable production schedule. Too often, unrealistically high standards that cannot be met by the processes selected and the available equipment are set during the engineering development phase, and then must be lowered, based on production expediency, rather than sound engineering...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... focal point can be used in these cases to obtain highly accurate and high-resolution UT measurements when compared to traditional UT probes. Acoustic emission testing is a UT method that can be used to determine the location and characteristics of an audible sound introduced into a component...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... measurements have also been used to determine the elastic modulus. By using appropriate ultrasonic transducers, the longitudinal and shear sound velocities can be measured. The Young's modulus and shear modulus can be calculated from the relationship: E = 4 ρ V S 2 [ 3 4 − ( V S...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005240
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., thermal analysis Electrical resistivity Pulse heating, four-point probing Hemispherical emissivity Pulse heating Viscosity Levitation, viscometer Surface tension Levitation, sessile drop Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio Tensile test, sound speed measurements Thermal expansion Push...