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solvent extraction

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract Ores, which consist of the primary valuable mineral, predominant gangue content, valuable by-products, and detrimental impurities, are extracted and directed to mineral processing. This article describes the mineral processing facilities, such as crushers, grinders...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... of the debinding step. Often parts of the binder are removed using totally different techniques, such as solvent extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, catalytic debinding, wick debinding, and thermal extraction. The decomposition products of the binder constituents should be nontoxic and noncorrosive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006636
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... extracts, food constituents, flavors, fragrances, industrial chemicals, pesticides, and pollutants. Readers are introduced to the most commonly employed mode, reverse-phase chromatography, with examples and an exclusive focus on commercially available instruments and consumables. The discussion covers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... The difference in masses corresponds to the mass of the analyte. Information on the initial oxidation state can also be gained by measuring the current applied during the electrogravimetric process ( Ref 8 ). Solvent Extraction In classic wet chemistry, solvent extraction is employed when the desired...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001739
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... of the analyte from matrix species. Such operations are grouped under the term “separation science” and find wide application. Solvent Extraction The interface between two immiscible liquids is permeable to some species and impermeable to others. When an aqueous solution and an organic solvent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006652
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... the same experimental and instrumental parameters as will be used for the analysis of an actual sample, with the exception that no sample is analyzed. For example, if extracting an organic solid into a solvent for analysis by GC/MS, it is good practice to prepare a separate sample consisting of the solvent...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... be classified into two broad categories: dry and wet. Dry techniques are those in which the inorganic powder portion predominates. Wet techniques are those in which the inorganic powders are in an aqueous, polymeric, or organic solvent carrier. Dry Consolidation Methods The majority of ceramic parts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005686
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... of the tests. Extractions should be carried out at temperatures that are high enough to maximize the amount of extractable substances. However, extraction conditions should not cause deformation or degradation of the sample. Sample preparation is an essential part of every solvent-based extraction...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... qualitative analysis quantitative analysis Overview Introduction In 1903, the Russian botanist M.S. Tswett devised a separation method called liquid column chromatography. Tswett separated structurally similar yellow and green chloroplast pigments obtained from leaf extracts by placing extract...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... for preparing single-stage, double-stage, and extraction replicas of fracture surfaces. It discusses the types of artifacts and their effects on these replicas, and provides information on shadowing of replicas. The article concludes with a comparison of the transmission electron and scanning electron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004188
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... in the water phase becoming very corrosive because it extracts the acid from the solvent phase. If the water is dissolved, but less than 100 ppm in the presence of acid, little or no corrosion will be observed in the solution, condensing, or vapor zones. However, if the dissolved water is more than 200 ppm...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... in a mixture as the best concentration for GC/MS analysis, consider the analysis of pollutants that may be present in very small quantities in a waste water stream. The compounds of interest are extracted from the waste water with a solvent, such as methylene chloride, and the solution is concentrated to give...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
.... It focuses on surface preparation methods that range from simple solvent cleaning to hand and power tool cleaning, dry and wet abrasive blast cleaning, centrifugal wheel blast cleaning, chemical stripping, and waterjetting for the application of the coating system. In addition, the article provides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... by precipitation and filtration and/or solvent extraction. The resulting ammonium molybdate solution is then converted to ammonium dimolybdate, (NH 4 ) 2 Mo 2 O 7 (ADM), or other molybdate products by crystallization or acid precipitation. Reduction to Molybdenum Molybdenum metal powder is manufactured...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Sometimes extraction with a second chemical solvent is necessary, one that is a better solvent for the plasticizer than the polymer is. The extract can then be tested for the presence of other chemicals to identify plasticizers. When the quantity of absorbed chemical is great...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... or heaters with open coils. Operators should be cautioned against repeated exposure of the skin to solvents. The use of basket, hangers, and other devices that prevent skin exposure is common practice and is recommended. Protective gloves or protective hand coatings should be used to prevent extraction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... the aluminum in solution by solvent extraction with ether. Distillation of the ether solution yields a gallium-rich residue that still contains some iron, which is removed by treating the residue with a strong caustic solution that extracts the gallium and leaves the iron as a solid. Iron residue is filtered...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006070
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... oxidation of steel, resulting in undercutting of a coating system. Water is one of the most abundant materials on earth. Pure water is considered a universal solvent, dissolving many substances. Rainwater dissolves gases in the atmosphere; entrains particulates in dust, smoke, and other pollutants...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003441
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... content is very direct: the fibers are weighed, the sizing removed, and the fibers are weighed again. Typical methods include extraction with an appropriate solvent to achieve total solvation of the size, but with no attack on the fiber, and pyrolysis at a temperature that will burn off the sizing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003848
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... result in a hardened O-ring. When flexed, the O-ring will typically show cracks on the inside diameter or perhaps break. The O-ring dimensions will not show much of a change. This type of problem can also occur if a chemical solvent extracts oils or plasticizers from the O-ring, resulting in a decrease...