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solvation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003580
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... describes three types of reactions for calculation and construction of E-pH diagrams: electrochemical reactions of pure charge (electron) transfer; reactions involving both electron and solvated proton transfer; and acid-base reactions of pure solvated proton transfer. It illustrates the practical use of E...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract The article commences with an overview of short-term and long-term mechanical properties of polymeric materials. It discusses plasticization, solvation, and swelling in rubber products. The article further describes environmental stress cracking and degradation of polymers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003578
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... the effects of an electric field near an electrode and illustrates the solvation of ions in metal-aqueous solution. anodic reactions cathodic reactions electric field electrochemical reactions electrode metal-aqueous solution oxidation reduction solvation ELECTROCHEMICAL, OR ELECTRODE...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004188
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
.... The role of the organic solvent in many cases is to transport corrosive reactants and the corrosion precipitates formed during the corrosion process. The aggressiveness of the corrosive species is a function of the type of solvent used and their solvation properties. The various physical and chemical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001324
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... degreasing is the so-called advanced vapor degreasing system ( Fig. 2 ). This system is quite different from a conventional vapor degreaser. Instead of using a single vapor degreasing step, the advanced vapor degreaser is a three-stage system involving the use of a solvating chemical (aliphatic esters...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003441
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... content is very direct: the fibers are weighed, the sizing removed, and the fibers are weighed again. Typical methods include extraction with an appropriate solvent to achieve total solvation of the size, but with no attack on the fiber, and pyrolysis at a temperature that will burn off the sizing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... neglected for pressures not too far from 1 bar). The usual convention is to assign the value 0 to the chemical potentials of the elements in their stable form and standard state at 25 °C (77 °F), for example, pure gaseous H 2 and O 2 at fugacity equal to 1 bar, solvated protons at activity unity. Hence...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004132
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...), and the ionic dissociation constant ( Fig. 1d ) decreases from 10 −14 at room temperature to 10 −23 at supercritical conditions. These changes result in supercritical water acting essentially as a nonpolar dense gas with solvation properties approaching those of a low-polarity organic. Inorganic solubility...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... if the fluid is a good solvent for the plastic, solvation usually occurs very slowly because of the macromolecular nature of the plastic. Thus, the first signs of solvation are similar to plasticization, although surface softening may be pronounced. Chemical Reaction Chemical reaction may occur between...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... that are important to human activities. Water is supercritical above its vapor-liquid critical point, 374 °C (706 °F) and 22 MPa (3.191 ksi). Supercritical water has unique solvating, transport, and compressibility properties compared to liquid water and steam. These properties are finding growing commercial...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002471
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... of individual atomic steps that may be described overall by Eq 1 . In essence, a metal atom combines with z solvating water molecules ( z H 2 O) and goes into solution as a solvated cation (M n + · z H 2 O), liberating n electrons into the underlying metal substrate. Alternatively, the metal atom may...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001732
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... of the nuclear centers of the molecule. Therefore, upon entering the excited state, the solvated molecule has retained the geometry of its ground state, and only the electron distribution has been altered. Subsequent reorientation of the geometry of the solvated molecule to a more stable excited-state...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... be separated from Ni 2+ using tri-isooctyl amine. Solvating extractants Tributyl phosphate, tri(n-octyl)phosphine oxide Tributyl phosphate in a hydrocarbon organic phase is used to extract Fe 3+ from hydrochloric leaching solutions of Ni mattes. Source: Ref 9 Mesh sieve sizes and approximate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003594
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... than the isothermal case. Both solvation and solute deposition are normally occurring, and there is essentially a time-invariant ( C 0 − C ) driving force for dissolution at a given temperature. This is because, after a short transient period, C is constant as the flow of the liquid metal quickly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... provide the necessary contrast ( Fig. 13 ). Many of the dyes that can be used to highlight these features are solvated, and some may require even further dissolution with solvents. As described previously, the use of laser dyes may be a good option if a microscope is available that incorporates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... to the dissolving surface, and the flux of solvated metal cations away from the surface. The repassivation rate is critical in that it must be rapid enough to avoid extensive and widespread dissolution, which leads to crack-tip blunting and pit formation rather than sharp and directional crack advance, but slow...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., solvation, plasticization, chemical attack, or environmental stress cracking can occur. In the case of property alteration through solvation or plasticization, FTIR can be helpful in identifying the absorbed chemicals. Because these chemicals are present within the failed plastic material, the likelihood...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... of growth-inhibiting substances and by the substrate itself ( Ref 13 ). In solution, the metal ions (surrounded by their solvation sheath) migrate toward the deposit, where they lose their sheath and accept electrons to become atoms. The atoms are adsorbed onto the surface and migrate until they encounter...