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solvation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003580
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... types of reactions for calculation and construction of E-pH diagrams: electrochemical reactions of pure charge (electron) transfer; reactions involving both electron and solvated proton transfer; and acid-base reactions of pure solvated proton transfer. It illustrates the practical use of E-pH diagrams...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract The article commences with an overview of short-term and long-term mechanical properties of polymeric materials. It discusses plasticization, solvation, and swelling in rubber products. The article further describes environmental stress cracking and degradation of polymers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003578
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... the effects of an electric field near an electrode and illustrates the solvation of ions in metal-aqueous solution. anodic reactions cathodic reactions electric field electrochemical reactions electrode metal-aqueous solution oxidation reduction solvation ELECTROCHEMICAL, OR ELECTRODE...
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Published: 30 January 2024
Fig. 41 SEM images of ABS fracture surface caused by ESC. The characteristic thumbnail-shaped origin is outlined by the red dashed line. The origin exhibits craze ruptures (yellow arrow), featureless slow crack-growth morphology (green arrow), and solvated film (orange arrow) areas as a result More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004188
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
.... The role of the organic solvent in many cases is to transport corrosive reactants and the corrosion precipitates formed during the corrosion process. The aggressiveness of the corrosive species is a function of the type of solvent used and their solvation properties. The various physical and chemical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001324
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... degreasing is the so-called advanced vapor degreasing system ( Fig. 2 ). This system is quite different from a conventional vapor degreaser. Instead of using a single vapor degreasing step, the advanced vapor degreaser is a three-stage system involving the use of a solvating chemical (aliphatic esters...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006917
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... parameters are commonly used when evaluating interactions of solvents with polymers ( Ref 2 ). The general idea is that materials with similar solubility parameters will show interaction with each other, resulting in solvation, miscibility, or swelling. The concept of ESC involves similar types...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003441
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... content is very direct: the fibers are weighed, the sizing removed, and the fibers are weighed again. Typical methods include extraction with an appropriate solvent to achieve total solvation of the size, but with no attack on the fiber, and pyrolysis at a temperature that will burn off the sizing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... neglected for pressures not too far from 1 bar). The usual convention is to assign the value 0 to the chemical potentials of the elements in their stable form and standard state at 25 °C (77 °F), for example, pure gaseous H 2 and O 2 at fugacity equal to 1 bar, solvated protons at activity unity. Hence...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006867
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... degradation of the polymer, breaking the macromolecular chains, reducing molecular weight, and diminishing polymer properties as a result. Each of these effects is examined in subsequent paragraphs. Plasticization, Solvation, and Swelling Certain interactions between liquid chemicals and polymers can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... to human activities. Water is supercritical above its vapor-liquid critical point, 374 °C (706 °F) and 22 MPa (3.191 ksi). Supercritical water has unique solvating, transport, and compressibility properties compared to liquid water and steam. These properties are finding growing commercial applications...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004132
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...), and the ionic dissociation constant ( Fig. 1d ) decreases from 10 −14 at room temperature to 10 −23 at supercritical conditions. These changes result in supercritical water acting essentially as a nonpolar dense gas with solvation properties approaching those of a low-polarity organic. Inorganic solubility...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... if the fluid is a good solvent for the plastic, solvation usually occurs very slowly because of the macromolecular nature of the plastic. Thus, the first signs of solvation are similar to plasticization, although surface softening may be pronounced. Chemical Reaction Chemical reaction may occur between...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001732
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... spectrofluorometer. Practical Considerations Solvent Effects According to the Franck-Condon principle, absorption of a photon is too rapid to allow rearrangement of the nuclear centers of the molecule. Therefore, upon entering the excited state, the solvated molecule has retained the geometry of its...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002471
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... of individual atomic steps that may be described overall by Eq 1 . In essence, a metal atom combines with z solvating water molecules ( z H 2 O) and goes into solution as a solvated cation (M n + · z H 2 O), liberating n electrons into the underlying metal substrate. Alternatively, the metal atom may...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006933
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... in addressing polymeric degradation, the technique is also useful in evaluating the failed sample material for chemical contact. Plastic materials can be affected in several ways through contact with chemical agents. Depending on the polymer/chemical combination, solvation, plasticization, additive abstraction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... in the organic phase ( Ref 9 ). Ideally, the extractant reagent is selected for the ion of interest, making separation of a mixture possible at this stage. Extractants are generally categorized as cation exchangers, anion exchangers, or solvating extractants. A list of common organic phases, extractants...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... to the dissolving surface, and the flux of solvated metal cations away from the surface. The repassivation rate is critical in that it must be rapid enough to avoid extensive and widespread dissolution, which leads to crack-tip blunting and pit formation rather than sharp and directional crack advance, but slow...