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solute conservation

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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... a differential volume element of the solidifying alloy and assume no diffusion in the solid. Mass conservation of any solute element in the alloy, in the absence of transport across the volume element, is: (Eq 1) ( C L − C S * ) d f S = ( 1 − f S ) d C L where C L...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... Abstract Thermodynamic descriptions have become available for a large number of alloy systems and allow the calculation of the phase diagrams of multicomponent alloys. This article begins with a discussion on three laws of thermodynamics: the Law of Conservation of Energy, the Second Law...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... by full numerical solutions of the transport equations, with some attention paid to experimental validation. Conservation Equations for Transport Phenomena Thermal Energy Transport The primary driving force for solidification is the transfer of heat from an alloy. The temperature difference...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... be readily applied to modeling casting processes. The article also summarizes the key features of the conservation equations in these tools. casting modeling transport phenomena conservation equations electromagnetics explicit numerical solution thermal energy conservation solute conservation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004142
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... identified on archaeological tin and pewter, lead, iron alloys, silver alloys, and copper alloys. It also discusses the corrosion problems after excavation and the techniques followed by archaeological department for conserving metal artifacts. copper alloys corrosion environmental pollutants lead...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
..., such as copper alloys, iron alloys, lead, zinc, and aluminum, used in outdoor artifacts are discussed. Finally, the article reviews conservation and preservation strategies for these five as well as gilded metals. aluminum alloys copper alloys corrosion pollutants lead alloys zinc alloys temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 January 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0006841
EISBN: 978-1-62708-387-4
..., bronzes, and wrought irons. The article considers the applicabilities of fractography, metallography, and chemical analyses in answering archaeological and archaeometallurgical questions. The article also discusses the restoration and conservation of corroded and embrittled artifacts, including the use...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004140
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... impermeable to moisture. Although direct intervention remains an option, modern conservation practice encourages the control of the environment rather than the imposition of any direct treatment, because such treatments inevitably alter the material nature of the object and are not always effective...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... to solve the CFD equations are described, including geometry description and discretization. Finally, the application of CFD to a few casting problems is demonstrated. Fundamentals of CFD Computational fluid dynamics has as its objective the numerical solution of fluid-flow equations. The calculus...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... or a virtual processing scenario is a combination of: An idealized process model expressed in mathematical equations Numerical method to solve the equations Computer software to carry out the solution Software to display the results graphically, mimicking the physical behavior of the process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... Abstract This article is a comprehensive collection of formulas and numerical solutions, addressing many heat-transfer scenarios encountered in welds. It provides detailed explanations and dimensioned drawings in order to discuss the geometry of weld models, transfer of energy and heat in welds...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001480
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... and pressure in the arc are known data. With this data, they would solve the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy to compute the temperature, velocity, and pressure fields in the weld pool and the position of the weld-pool boundary. Fig. 1 Finite-element mesh for a weld described in a Eulerian...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... metal-loss conditions because it provides conservative results and is less difficult to perform (it does not require thickness profiles), which results in a more cost-effective solution when it can be successfully used. A Level 2 assessment was conducted in this case because calculations must include...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005636
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... metal arc welding (GMAW), laser welding, electron beam welding, and laser-arc hybrid welding. Furthermore, the models are based on the solution of governing conservation equations for mass, momentum, energy, and chemical species. The calculated results from the heat and mass transfer models, especially...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001324
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 requires that hazardous waste be disposed of in a manner that will not cause any adverse environmental or health effects. The RCRA also established that industrial manufacturers and processors must...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... of the NASA Conservation of Strategic Aerospace Materials (COSAM) program. advanced processing concepts alternate materials COSAM program gas turbine engines strategic materials strategic element substitution superalloys US reserves THE SUPERALLOYS are critical to the economic survival...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
.... Important features of the control-volume-based computational method that address the unique aspects of the VAR and ESR processes for obtaining an efficient and robust solution of the governing equations are then discussed. Applications of the models to practical VAR and ESR processes are presented next...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005208
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... The study of forces on a body is balanced by the time rate of energy transport, embodied in the temperature @t change of linear momentum. In conservative form: eld T(x,t), is called heat transfer. The transport of solute, given by C(x,t), is called mass This is written in the so-called conservative Á Á@rv...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... change of linear momentum. In conservative form: eld T(x,t), is called heat transfer. The transport of solute, given by C(x,t), is called mass This is written in the so-called conservative Á Á@rv transfer. In uid systems, it is also necessary form, which is quite useful if one decides to inte...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005426
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
...-difference approximations to the advection terms. These are often the largest errors in approximations of the Eulerian equations. When carefully formulated, PIC and SPH method solutions can also be Galilean invariant and conserve angular momentum ( Ref 37 ). A disadvantage of particle methods lies...