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solidification

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... Abstract Monotectic alloys can be classified based on the difference between the critical temperature and the monotectic temperature. This article begins with a schematic illustration of monotectic reaction in copper-lead system. It discusses the solidification structures of monotectics and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... compositions of the phases present, and the amounts of phases present. Phase diagrams provide useful information for understanding alloy solidification. The article provides two simple models that can describe the limiting cases of solidification behavior. alloy solidification binary isomorphous systems...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
.../solidification and on solid-state transformations. It explains the construction of phase diagrams by the Gibbs phase rule and the Lever rule. The article also reviews the various types of alloy systems that involve solid-state transformations. It concludes with information on the sources of phase diagram...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... peritectic alloys. It informs that peritectic reactions or transformations are very common in the solidification of metals. The article discusses the formation of peritectic structures that can occur by three mechanisms: peritectic reaction, peritectic transformation, and direct precipitation of beta from...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... article describes the aluminum-silicon eutectic system and the lead-tin eutectic system. It discusses eutectic morphologies in terms of lamellar and fibrous eutectics, regular and irregular eutectics, and the interpretation of eutectic microstructures. The article examines the solidification of a binary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... homogeneous liquid to a homogeneous solid of the shape desired. Unfortunately, solidification is inherently an unmixing process in which some solute elements report preferentially to the solid and others report preferentially to the liquid. As a result, the product is a continuum of chemistry, as illustrated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006266
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... solidification. In wrought alloys, homogenization of ingots for subsequent wrought processing is important, because solute inhomogeneity can adversely affect the hot workability (from grain-boundary liquation or cracking) and induce formation of undesired phases as a result of segregation (see also the article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006278
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... content to an acceptable level is accomplished by the use of reducing gases, which convert the dissolved oxygen to gaseous oxides and reduce the Cu 2 O back to copper. If only pure copper remains, shrinkage during solidification leaves a depression on the surface of a test ingot. However, if some oxygen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... from the melt or shrinkage from solidification. Hydrogen or other gas pores are usually spherical, whereas solidification shrinkage is elongated and occurs in interdendritic spaces. This is illustrated in Fig. 5 . Fig. 5 (a) Interdendritic shrinkage and (b) porosity in an EN AB 46000 (AlSi 9 Cu...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... castings. Homogenization, in a broad sense, refers to processes designed to achieve uniform distribution of solutes or phases in a given matrix. During solidification of a melt, microsegregation occurs due to the redistribution of solutes as solute is rejected into the liquid. Uniform distribution of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006280
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... for property improvement or heat treated to relieve stresses. Homogenizing of cast brasses is not common, because coring during solidification is rare. The copper-zinc binary phase diagram ( Fig. 1 ) has a narrow freezing range of solidification, and this binary system goes through five peritectic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006284
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005922
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005967
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Abstract This article reviews some concepts considered important for an understanding of processes used for preparing cobalt-chromium alloy implants, the microstructures resulting from this processing, and the resulting material properties. The review includes the solidification of alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... coupling of the CA to macroscopic calculation of heat, flow, and mass transfers in castings and applications to realistic casting conditions. microstructure solidification cellular automaton methods macrostructure grain structure castings heat transfers flow transfers mass transfers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article presents the governing equations for moving a solidification front, based on the balance of mass, momentum, energy, and solute. It reviews how material properties and geometry can be analyzed in the context of the governing equations. The article provides several example...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract A key aspect of solidification process modeling is the treatment of the interface between the solidifying casting and the mold in which it is contained. This article begins with information on casting-mold interface heat-transfer phenomena. It describes practical considerations and...