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solid film lubrication

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Metal-induced embrittlement is a phenomenon in which the ductility or the fracture stress of a solid metal is reduced by surface contact with another metal in either the liquid or solid form. This article summarizes some of the characteristics of liquid-metal- and solid-metal-induced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... to ensure correct solid content in the lubricant suspensions. Often, chemicals are added to lubricants to inhibit formation and growth of bacteria in the lubricant tank. While there are many lubricants that satisfy these functional requirements in different applications, the candidates...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... lubricants with exceptional film-priming characteristics are necessary for effective lubrication. On the other hand, lubricants containing sulfur, chlorine, or solid additives such as zinc oxide or lead carbonate can, if not removed from the nickel surface, cause embrittlement of the metal. Oils...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... Typically, short cuplike parts are produced by backward extrusion, while solid shaftlike parts and thin-walled hollow shafts are produced by forward extrusion. Semihollow shapes and thick-walled hollow shafts are made with both forward and backward extrusion. Other factors that influence procedure are the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... coating dries on the test area, measure the DFT. This will provide the applicators with a practical wet-film target. If the resulting DFT meets the requirements of the specification, the actual volume solids content of the coating material becomes a moot point. On the other hand, if the resulting DFT is...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... metallic sulfide films, which will act as solid lubricants at temperatures up to approximately (700 °C) 1300 °F. Chlorine reacts and functions in essentially the same manner as sulfur. Inhibiting ingredients are added to prevent corrosion of ferrous surfaces because chlorine is more reactive than...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., titanium alloys, alloy steels, stainless steels, and tool steels are extruded with a variety of graphite and glass-base lubricants. Commercial grease mixtures containing solid-film lubricants, such as graphite, often provide little or no thermal protection to the die. For this reason, die wear is...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... of material loss or displacement from one or both of two solid surfaces in relative motion, is an example of the latter case ( Ref 11 , 12 ). Lubrication reduces friction and wear between surfaces in relative motion by the application of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (lubricant) ( Ref 1...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... increases with pressure). Elastohydrodynamic lubrication requires very smooth surface finishes to prevent asperity contact. Boundary lubrication denotes a range of contact conditions that occur when the hydrodynamic film collapses under high load or with too low a shear rate. Solid surface contact...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... be internal (compounded into the plastic). Internal mold-release agents can offer other advantages in terms of mold flow, uniformity of coverage, and cost control. Lubricants are used to decrease internal and external friction in molten and solid polymers ( Ref 1 ). Without lubricants, processing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... is mutual solid solubility between the film and substrate material and the temperature and time are sufficient to allow diffusion to occur. This type of interfacial system is often found in metallic systems. Some systems, such as silver on iron and indium, or gallium on GaAs, have no solubility and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... the coating weight. After a spray application, squeegee rolls are used. Changing the pressure on the squeegee can help control the amount of film on the surface. Emulsion compounds are oil-in-water emulsions that contain from 8 to 12% solids. These compounds, which are available as concentrates, are...
Book Chapter

By Donald M. Mattox
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... between a film and substrate (for example, silver on steel for mirrors, silver on beryllium for diffusion bonding) ( Ref 65 ) Electrical conductive layers (aluminum, silver, and gold) on plastics and semiconductors Low-shear solid film lubricants (for example, silver and gold) ( Ref 107 ) Wear...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... transfer is maximized. Fig. 7 Detail of screw The screw may be solid or cored. Coring, used for either steam heating or water cooling, can extend the entire length of the screw or for just a part, depending on the application. Full-length coring is used when large amounts of heat must be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... of a solid, dry film lubricant as part of the fastener production process was considered. Figure 6 shows average torque-tension curves generated from testing replicate 1 2 -20-UNC, grade 5 fasteners plated with cadmium, zinc-nickel, and zinc-nickel with additional lubricious topcoats (i.e...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Plates (solid, hollow, or ribbed) Films The disadvantages of extrusion exist in the drying, binder removal, and firing operations. The binder and solvent that have been added to the mix must be either totally or partially removed in the drying process. This operation may be performed over a wide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... dies can be made as one piece (solid dies) or as two pieces (open dies), as shown in Fig. 10 Fig. 10 Cold-heading dies. (a) Solid (one-piece) and (b) open (two-piece) Materials selection for dies and punches in cold heading is similar to cold extrusion (see the article “Cold...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... forged, hot rolled, and hot swaged, usually at temperatures higher than for platinum. All respond to cold working by rolling, swaging, and wiredrawing. In wiredrawing, platinum and platinum alloys are handled almost exactly like copper. Solid lubricants are used for drawing to about 0.8 mm ( 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003983
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... increment in the next blow cycle. Some metal flow also occurs in the transverse direction, but it is restricted by the oval or side clearance in the dies (see Fig. 7 ). Fig. 3 Metal flow during swaging of a solid bar Rotary swaging machines are classified as standard rotary, stationary...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...) Viscosity (200 to 1000 SUS) is influenced by base oil or wax, degree of chlorination, and additions of mineral oil. (k) Solid lubricant applied from dispersions in oil, solvent or water. (l) For hot forming applications only Stainless steels are press formed with the same kind of equipment as...