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solder alloy systems

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... temperature difference between the mainstream lead-containing and lead-free solder alloy systems, except tin-bismuth alloys, which are commonly used for low-temperature soldering processes ( Ref 3 ). Typical compositions of solder alloys Table 1 Typical compositions of solder alloys Categories...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... exceed the strength of the parts being soldered, that is, the process produces relatively weak joints, when compared with brazed and welded assemblies Applications Materials Torch soldering is used extensively on copper, brass, and other copper alloys. Steel, stainless steel, aluminum, gold...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001397
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... solidifies. Process Applications The RS process can be used in all soldering operations and with all solderable metals. The only limitations are the thickness and the design of the parts to be soldered. Resistance soldering is used to join steels (for example, carbon, low alloy, and stainless...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001346
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
..., in his Historia Naturalis, written 2000 years ago, mentions (in Chapter XLVIII of Book XXXIV) that the soldered connections of the pipes of the Roman aqueducts were made with a so-called “tertiarium” mixture, an alloy of two parts lead and one part tin. The earliest solders were alloys found in nature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001479
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... are available, and the application should determine which solder is chosen. The most common solders are alloys of tin and lead. Tin-lead solders with a composition near the eutectic are commonly used, because of the rapid transformation from liquid to solid upon cooling. The eutectic melting temperature...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... be obtained with melting temperatures as low as 180 °C (360 °F) and as high as 315 °C (600 °F) within this system. Except for the pure metals and the eutectic solder at 63%Sn-37%Pb, all soldering alloys melt within a temperature range that varies according to the alloy composition. Each alloy has unique...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001398
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... focuses on two types of laser soldering operations, blind laser soldering and intelligent laser soldering, and the conditions under which their application is suitable. Key attributes of each system, relative to other types of soldering operations, are also identified. Blind Laser Soldering...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001092
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
...-solution system (noneutectic) with an available temperature range from the melting point of indium (156.6 °C, or 313.9 °F) to the melting point of lead (327 °C, or 621 °F). This wide range permits a choice of alloys with temperature differentials large enough for step soldering. Corrosion Resistance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001450
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
...- or tin-base alloy systems to which a small amount of silver, zinc, antimony, bismuth, indium, or a combination thereof, have been added. The filler-metal and base-material reactions of many solders are characterized by the formation of intermetallic phases in the bulk of the joint as well as at the joint...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... The most commonly used solder alloys in electronics manufacturing are summarized in Table 1 . Typical soldering temperatures in manufacturing operations are from 30 to 50 °C (55 to 90 °F) above the liquidus temperature to ensure adequate flow of the solder and proper heating of the substrate. The solder...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... joints and their causes. It describes the role of proper brazing procedures in controlling corrosion. The article concludes with information on the corrosion resistance of various brazing alloy systems. brazed joints brazing corrosion corrosion resistance soldered joints brazing alloy systems...
Book Chapter

By Paul T. Vianco
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... the surface of the solder; molten alloy does not flow on top of the board. As the printed circuit board passes on the wave, the solder wets the surface-mount package leads, terminations, and exposed metal surfaces in the circuit board, and also fills plated through holes. This technique can produce several...
Book Chapter

By Roy E. Beal
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... substrate or part. Joint gaps also depend on the reactions of the molten filler metal with the material to be joined. For example, aluminum filler metals (or those with zinc, tin-zinc, or zinc-aluminum alloys) react more quickly with aluminum than a tin-lead solder will with copper and therefore require...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001492
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
...-resistant alloys joining low-alloy steels low-carbon steels nickel-base alloys nuclear applications refractory metals solderability soldered joints titanium titanium alloys tool steels ANALYSIS of the brazeability and solderability of engineering materials requires the following...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... resistance in the oral environment ( Ref 1 ). However, it is commonly used as an alloying element in both gold- and palladium-base dental alloy systems. Silver is also a major component of dental amalgam alloys. In 1987, 1.12% of the U.S. silver demand was used for dental and medical supply purposes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005856
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
.... The alloying of various metals to make solder filler metals produces some very interesting results that are useful to understand. Two examples of tin-lead compositions, and the tin-lead constitutional diagram in the accompanying graphs, will begin to show how solders work. One of the first things to note...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., lead, tin, cadmium, and indium. The term fusible alloy refers to any of the more than 100 white-metal alloys that melt at relatively low temperatures, that is, below the melting point of tin-lead eutectic solder (183 °C, or 360 °F). The melting points of these alloys range as low as 47 °C (116 °F...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
..., refining its size and minimizing its deleterious properties. Fig. 6 Properties of aluminum-silicon alloys. Source: Ref 3 as published in Ref 2 Lead-Tin Eutectic System Although lead-tin alloys are too weak for use as structural materials, they are widely used as solders...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001344
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... to produce sound joints. Just as the technique of brazing developed empirically, so did the lower-melting point filler metals. Workers first used lead and tin solders as well as silver and copper-arsenic ores, which were readily available and had low melting points. Later, the alloy brass was developed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
.... Manufacturers are more concerned with the degree of corrosion protection for the various metals found in automotive cooling systems: aluminum alloys, cast iron, copper, brass, steel, and various brazes and solders. The basic mechanisms involved in cooling system corrosion are no different from those...