1-20 of 90 Search Results for

solar radiation

Follow your search
Access your saved searches in your account

Would you like to receive an alert when new items match your search?
Close Modal
Sort by
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003844
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... (solar radiation, heat and temperature variation, and nuclear radiation), permeation (moisture, solvent retention, chemical, and oxygen), stress (drying and curing, vibration, and impact and abrasion), and biological influences (microbiological and macrobiological). coatings paints protective...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006920
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract This article describes the processes involved in photochemical aging and weathering of polymeric materials. It explains how solar radiation, especially in the UV range, combines with atmospheric oxygen, driving photooxidation and the development of unstable photoproducts that cause...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006871
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... are susceptible to the effects of weather. These weather factors that contribute to degradation of plastics include heat and temperature variations, humidity and moisture variations, solar radiation, oxygen, microbiologic attack, and other environmental elements. The results of exposing plastics...
Image
Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 1 Examples of the causes of residual stresses. (a) Thermal distortion in a structure due to heating by solar radiation. (b) Residual stresses due to welding. (c) Residual stresses due to grinding. Source: Ref 4 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
..., salts, and chemicals are primary influences in the corrosion process on steel and most metals and other materials. These influences, and the degrading influences of other environmental effects can loosely be categorized as energy related (solar, heat/cold, and nuclear radiation); permeation related...
Image
Published: 30 September 2015
Fig. 2 Solar spectrum as emitted and after absorption and scattering. 1. sun spectrum before entering stratosphere (extraterrestial radiation), 2. spectrum modified by ozone absorption (in stratosphere and troposphere), 3. spectrum after Rayleigh scattering (by small molecules), 4. spectrum More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001465
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... of the space environment is solar heat welding. Solar radiation in space is unshielded by the atmosphere. A spacecraft in low earth orbit typically receives 1.4 kW/m 2 (0.13 kW/ft 2 ) in daylight conditions. This energy can be taken advantage of by focusing the solar radiation on the workpiece through the use...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... and nonstructural applications on spacecraft (Ref 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , and 15 ). These applications include truss structure, equipment-panel structure, optical benches, radiators, solar array support structures, antenna reflectors, antenna masts, electronic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...., alkalis and acids), ionizing radiation, and biological degradation, along with the combined effects of mechanical stress, temperature, and moisture (including environmental stress corrosion). The article also includes information on the use of accelerated testing for predicting material property...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... the same power to the satellite. Consequently, a satellite can carry a greater pay-load when GaAs is used as the solar cell material. Gallium arsenide is also more resistant to radiation than silicon; consequently, GaAs solar cells have a longer life in space environments ( Ref 2 ). One defense...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003649
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., solar radiation) ( Ref 1 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 ). While monitoring these variables can be expensive, it is often possible to co-locate atmospheric exposure test panels at or near local or regional monitoring sites that provide some or all of the needed information. This greatly enhances...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... the passage of light in and allow people to see out. They can allow free solar heating to enter yet must prevent warm or cool air from escaping. During the summer, they should prevent excessive solar heat gain yet not impede the view to the exterior. Windows must withstand all loads imposed on them by wind...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Examples include automotive radiators, solar heating panels, communications cable, and electrical connectors. At relatively low operating temperatures, these alloys can undergo thermal softening (degradation of strength/hardness) or stress relaxation (decrease in stress resulting from transformation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... on tank cars, because the majority of these cars are painted black by convention and thus can experience temperatures of 60 °C (140 °F) from solar radiation alone. Many tank cars are of the insulated heater-coiled design, which allows for destination reheating to mobilize ladings that would otherwise cool...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005993
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
.... Consequently, radiation contributes substantially to heat transfer in boilers, furnaces, combustion chambers, nuclear power plants, and rocket nozzles. Solar radiation plays an important part in the design of heating and ventilating systems. Radiation can also be of importance in some instances when free...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... temperature levels. Consequently, radiation contributes substantially to heat transfer in boilers, furnaces, combustion chambers, nuclear power plants, and rocket nozzles. Solar radiation plays an important part in the design of heating and ventilating systems. Radiation can also be of importance in some...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 12 September 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23A.a0006895
EISBN: 978-1-62708-392-8
... on prepatterned silicon dioxide/silicon substrate. The fiber shown had a diameter of about 180 nm. Si, silicon; SiO 2 , silicon dioxide; Au, gold. Reproduced from Ref 90 with the permission of AIP Publishing Solar Cells Solar cells are used to mimic nature by converting radiation from the sun...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005736
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
.... Electromagnetic Interference/Radio-Frequency Interference Shielding Electromagnetic interference is a disturbance (noise) that affects an electrical circuit due to either electromagnetic induction or electromagnetic radiation emitted from another circuit. This phenomenon can occur in electronic devices...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006558
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... ohmic losses; therefore, the process allows for applications with high electrical current densities (see satellite with solar panels in Fig. 4 ). Table 2 shows a list of applications of additive manufacturing with embedded wires. Fig. 4 1U/3U CubeSat mechanical structures with embedded...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... of short wave radiation emitted with solar flares that varies in magnitude on cycles throughout the year and over a period of years. The telluric current associated with the geomagnetic fluctuations tends to flow in the earth's crust. Should a pipeline be installed in the area of this telluric activity...