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sodium cyanide baths

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... cyanide (strike) Standard barrel Low concentration (a) High concentration (a) Sodium cyanide (b) Potassium cyanide (b) Bath composition, g/L (oz/gal) Copper cyanide 22 (3) 45 (6) 26 (4) 60 (8) 80 (11) 80 (11) Sodium cyanide 33 (4) 68 (9) 35 (5) 80 (11) 105 (14) 105 (14...
Book Chapter

By A. Sato
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Constituent Standard cyanide bath (a) Mid or half-strength cyanide bath (b) Optimum Range Optimum Range g/L oz/gal g/L oz/gal g/L oz/gal g/L oz/gal Preparation Zinc cyanide 61 8.1 54–86 7.2–11.5 30 4.0 27–34 3.6–4.5 Sodium cyanide 42 5.6 30–41 4.0–5.5 20 2.7 15...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... unfavorable temperature gradients must be periodically removed from all baths. In normal operation, overheating of any bath (above 595 °C, or 1100 °F) should be avoided. Some of the compositions employed in liquid nitriding processes contain sodium cyanide or potassium cyanide, or both. These compounds...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... baths Table 1 Operating compositions of liquid carburizing baths Constituent Composition of bath, % Light case, low temperature 845–900 °C (1550–1650 °F) Deep case, high temperature 900–955 °C (1650–1750 °F) Sodium cyanide 10–23 6–16 Barium chloride … 30–55 (a) Salts...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... (0.05 to 0.1 mil) of copper prior to further copper plating or electrodeposition of other metals. High-Efficiency Sodium and Potassium Cyanide Baths With proprietary additives, the high-concentration baths are used to produce deposits of various degrees of brightness and leveling, in thicknesses...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... plating is done in cyanide baths, which generally are made by dissolving cadmium oxide in a sodium cyanide solution. Sodium cyanide provides conductivity and makes the corrosion of the cadmium anodes possible. The anode system for cadmium plating from a cyanide solution consists of ball-shaped...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... for determining concentration of selected chemical constituents of cyanide cadmium plating baths Table 10 Analytical tests for determining concentration of selected chemical constituents of cyanide cadmium plating baths Test constituent Component Cadmium metal Sodium cyanide (total) Sodium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001266
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... ), uses potassium gold cyanide as the source of gold and sodium borohydride or dimethylamine borane as reducing agents ( Table 1 ). These baths operate in strongly alkaline media; the strong alkalinity is necessary for the activity of the reducing agent. The suggested reaction mechanism ( Ref 5...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... sodium chloride and sodium carbonate are added to cyanide to provide fluidity and to control the melting points of all mixtures. The 30% NaCN mixture, as well as those containing 45, 75, and 97% NaCN, may be added to the operating bath to maintain a desired cyanide concentration for a specific...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... adhesion on stainless steel. Lukens referred to this bath, made up with sodium gold cyanide, sodium cyanide, and hydrochloric acid as acid gold plating. The alkaline gold plating solutions in use in the early 1950s caused lifting of printed circuit resists, especially the wax-based resists introduced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... by reversing the current in 30 g/L (4 oz/gal) solution of sodium cyanide at approximately 50 to 55 °C (122 to 131 °F). The silver-indium alloy can be removed in 1:1 nitric acid, but care must be taken to remove it from the bath before the steel is etched. No ASTM, ISO, or U.S. government specifications...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... are not contaminated with cyanides, organic compounds, or water. Medium-temperature (650 to1000 °C, or 1200 to 1830 °F) neutral baths that are binary or ternary mixtures of the following salts: potassium chloride, sodium chloride, barium chloride, or calcium chloride (see Table 1 for two typical examples...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006491
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... solution. The composition and operating conditions recommended for this bath are: Copper cyanide: 4 g/L (5.5 oz/gal) Total sodium cyanide: 50 g/L (6.5 oz/gal) Free sodium cyanide: 4 g/L (0.5 oz/gal) max Sodium carbonate: 30 g/L (4.0 oz/gal) Rochelle salt: 60 g/L (8.0 oz/gal) Operating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... (0.1–0.5 oz) Water, to make 4 L (1 gal) Temperature of bath 60–80 °C (140–180 °F) Immersion time 30 s-10 min Sodium hydroxide 2–6 g (0.25–0.75 oz) Sodium phosphate 8–60 g (1–8 oz) Sodium carbonate 8–60 g (1–8 oz) Water, to make 4 L (1 gal) Temperature of bath 60–80 °C...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... bath Zinc 40 0.043 0.28 95 7.4×10 −3 Zinc (alkaline noncyanide) plating bath Zinc 15 0.023 0.15 75 1.9×10 −3 Sodium hydroxide 115 0.023 0.15 75 1.4×10 −2 Silver strike bath Silver 6 0.03 0.2 90 8.3×10 −4 Cyanide (CN) 70 0.03 0.2 90 9.7×10 −3 Silver...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... electroplated with cadmium from conventional plating baths. A typical bath has the following composition: Cadmium oxide 22 to 33 g/L (3.0 to 4.5 oz/gal) Sodium cyanide 85 to 110 g/L (11.5 to 15.0 oz/gal) Sodium hydroxide 16 to 24 g/L (2.1 to 3.2 oz/gal) Brightening agent As required...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Low-pH brass plating conditions Table 1 Low-pH brass plating conditions Constituent or condition Standard brass solution High-copper brass solution Makeup Sodium cyanide, g/L (oz/gal) 50 (6.7) 75 (10.0) Copper cyanide, g/L (oz/gal) 35 (4.7) 45 (6.0) Zinc cyanide, g/L...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006635
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... of the tetraiodobismuthate salt (characteristic in the absence of Cl – , F – , Br – ) 6. Sodium hydroxide White precipitate of bismuth(III) hydroxide Copper(II), Cu 2+ 1. Potassium iodide Brown precipitate of copper(I) iodide, colored brown due to I 3 – 2. Potassium cyanide Yellow precipitate of copper...
Book Chapter

By George B. Rynne
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... baths using the following cycle: Degrease with solvent (optional) Alkali clean (anodic) Rinse Dip in 5 to 25% hydrochloric acid Rinse thoroughly Dip in 30 to 75 g/L (4 to 10 oz/gal) sodium cyanide Rinse Copper cyanide strike Rinse thoroughly Dip in 10% fluoboric acid...
Book Chapter

By Nabil Zaki
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...) 110–130 (15–17) Potassium chloride, g/L (oz/gal) 200–250 (27–33) Ammonium chloride (a) , g/L (oz/gal) 100–200 (13–27) Organic additives, g/L (oz/gal) (a) 5–10 (0.66–1.3) pH 5–6 Anodes Zinc and nickel connected to two separate rectifiers Alkaline baths Sodium hydroxide, g/L...