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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... that are specifically designed for cold extrusion with high rigidity, accurate alignment, and long working strokes are described. The article details the factors that are critical in cold extrusion: punch design, die design, and tool design. It summarizes the role of lubricants during extrusion of steel, such as soap...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...Abstract Abstract This article lists functions of lubricants common to the majority of applications and processes. It discusses the lubricant candidates widely used in forging: conversion coatings with soaps (stearate compounds) and molybdenum disulfide for cold forging; oil-based thick, film...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... treatment. The effect of temperature on the formability of refractory metals is discussed. The article provides a description of the forming methods of sheet and preformed blanks using refractory metals. It also discusses the types of lubricants, including oils, soaps, waxes, silicones, graphite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... by forming a mechanical bond between the carrier and lubricant and by chemical reaction between the lubricant carrier and lubricant. Commonly used lubricants for wire drawing are based on sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and calcium hydroxide Ca(OH) 2 stearate soaps, which have different characteristics ( Table 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... high-strength barrier film formers. Sodium or potassium soaps are used widely in the production of all types of pastes. Buildup of lubricant in the tooling and the necessary cleaning of workpieces are the main drawbacks of pastes. Suspensions are used frequently to provide a desired barrier film...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... wear mechanisms. Light press forming of most metals requires only light mineral oil or soap lubrication to prevent die wear. More severe conditions, experienced when forming copper-, iron-, and nickel-base alloys, usually require liquid lubrication using either mineral oils with extreme-pressure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... In wire drawing, they are observed under conditions of boundary-lubrication breakdown and sometimes, under “thick-film” conditions, are developed with dry soaps ( Ref 3 ). In the former case it is likely that local lubrication breakdown in the die causes simultaneous sticking and slipping of adjacent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... galling (tool material pickup). A secondary function is to reduce die wear through abrasive and chemical wear mechanisms. Light press forming of most metals requires only light mineral oil or soap lubrication to prevent die wear. More severe conditions, experienced when forming copper-, iron-, and nickel...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... for forming of specific sheet materials Metal or alloy Recommended lubricants for: Cold forming Hot forming Aluminum alloys Synthetic solutions, emulsions, lanolin suspensions, water suspensions, soap solutions, mineral oil plus fatty oils Graphite suspension Copper alloys Emulsions plus...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... the steel to be drawn was surface treated with zinc phosphate and soap. However, cemented carbide dies do not provide satisfactory service with inferior lubricants. In addition, carbide dies are not superior to dies made of a tool steel such as D2 in complex deep-drawing operations (for example, those...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Removal of Pigmented Drawing Compounds All pigmented drawing lubricants are difficult to remove from metal parts. Consequently, many plants review all aspects of press forming operations to avoid the use of pigmented compounds. Table 1 indicates cleaning processes typically selected for removing...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of the locking portion of the die. The thickness of the counterlock should be at least 1.5 times the height to provide adequate strength to resist side thrust. Adequate lubrication of the sliding surfaces is difficult to maintain because of the temperature of the die and the heat radiated from the workpiece...
Book Chapter

By Rob Bosman
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006381
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... thickeners and had limited oxidational stability, which limited their application. While much progress has been made concerning the formulation of lubricating greases, the general formulation of 90% of the applied greases remains the same; a thickener (typically a soap) with a concentration...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... films (a) Fat emulsions in aqueous soap solutions plus finely divided fillers (b) Mineral oil plus sulfurized fatty oil plus fatty oil plus finely divided fillers (b) (a) For some applications, dried soap or wax films (lubricant No. 8) are less effective than lubricants No. 5, 6...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003178
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... and of multihole machines drawing with accumulation. In addition, external air cooling of the wire coil and water cooling of the die holder are possible. If water is applied to the wire at all, it must be totally removed before the wire enters the next die. The lubricant is usually a dry soap powder, placed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001324
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... or that promoted acid formation within the solvent. For many applications, an aqueous cleanable lubricant can be just as successful in the upstream operation as the vapor degreasable one was. After washing is complete, the basket is moved to the rinse stage(s). If soap drying onto the parts is a problem...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006425
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... fatty alcohols, oleic acid and its metal soap, lanolin and phosphate ester are used. Types and characteristics of press processing oil for aluminum plate Table 1 Types and characteristics of press processing oil for aluminum plate Lubricant Type Component Application Feature Deep...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
...)</xref> Generally, lubrication is more important in hot than in cold forming of magnesium alloys, because the likelihood of galling increases with the increase of temperature. Lubricants used in forming magnesium alloys include mineral oil, grease, tallow, soap, wax, molybdenum disulfide, colloidal graphite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... will cause temperature excursions in the bearing. Lubricating Grease Composition Rolling bearing greases are either thickened mineral oils or synthetic fluids. The thickeners are often metallic soaps. Additives are used to enhance certain properties of the grease. The maximum operating temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... can also be coated or prelubricated by phosphatizing, plating, soaping, or liming methods. If no intermediate annealing is required, some of the prelubricating methods permit several cold-drawing passes without repeated treatment. Solid bars or rods are generally lubricated by oil during the drawing...