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small-angle X-ray diffraction

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
..., desmearing parameters, and the types of scattering curves are illustrated. ceramics ferrous metals metallic glass nonferrous metals polymers small-angle neutron scattering small-angle X-ray diffraction Overview Introduction Small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and small-angle neutron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006643
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... some information may be obtained on amorphous solids and liquids using the pair distribution function method or complementary techniques (see the articles “Small-Angle X-Ray and Neutron Scattering” and “Micro X-Ray Diffraction” in this Division). Similar or complementary information often can...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
...-ray diffraction techniques are rapid and nondestructive; some instruments are portable and can be transported to the sample. The sample may be as small as an airborne dust particle or as large as an airplane wing. This article will describe the methods of x-ray diffraction analysis, the types...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... one or more independently diffracting regions that coherently diffract the x-ray beam. These small crystalline regions are termed crystallites. Consolidated samples, such as ceramic bodies or as-received metal samples, will likely have crystallites small enough to be useful for powder diffraction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... that coherently diffract the x-ray beam. These small crystalline regions are termed coherent scattering domains or crystallites. Consolidated samples, such as ceramic bodies or as-received metal samples, will likely have crystallites small enough to be useful for powder diffraction analysis, although they may...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... plots from intensity and scattering angle data. The article also presents application parameters for defining short distances and background intensity and describes a procedure for generating pair distribution functions. data reduction radial distribution function X-ray diffraction Overview...
Image
Published: 01 January 1986
Fig. 5 Diffraction data for an activated carbon (Amoco PX-21). I t is the total diffracted intensity, SAXS is the small-angle x-ray scattering obtained from the Fourier transform of the average density envelope, and I t — SAXS represents the total intensity with the small-angle More
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... will also occur if beams A and B are 720° or any multiple of 360° out of phase; hence, the general condition for constructive interference is Bragg's law, as given above. Fig. 2 Bragg's law, which defines the conditions for constructive interference and the angles at which diffracted beams of x-rays...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... the diffraction of a monochromatic beam of x-rays at a high diffraction angle, 2θ, from the surface of a stressed sample for two orientations of the sample relative to the x-ray beam. The angle ψ, defining the orientation of the sample surface, is the angle between the normal of the surface and the incident...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005731
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... be determined. These interplanar spacings are unique for each crystalline material. Figure 3 shows an x-ray diffraction 2θ scan for a WC/Co coating, with most of the peaks identified for phase and type of crystallographic plane. The highest peaks are threefold and appear at 2θ angles of approximately 31...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... distance of a set of crystal planes, and θ is the angle between the incident or diffracted x-ray beam and the corresponding crystal planes ( Fig. 5 ). Crystal planes are a set of abstract parallel planes that are equally spaced going through the whole crystal. Atoms can be related to the planes, either...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... to small localized strains, reflection from the first “perfect” crystal produces a monochromatic and highly parallel beam of x-rays used to probe the test crystal. Monitoring of the x-ray intensity diffracted by the test crystal as it is slowly rotated, or rocked, through the Bragg angle for the reflecting...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in the range of 100,000 to 400,000 V have much shorter wavelengths than x-rays, which makes typical diffraction angles quite small. As a result, nearly all grains diffract to some extent. Some grains are oriented in ways that particular planes satisfy Bragg's law precisely. These grains diffract strongly...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... studies at synchrotrons have demonstrated some potential for x-ray studies of magnetic ordering, almost all known magnetic structures have been determined by neutron diffraction. Third, the form factor is essentially constant with diffraction angle, unlike those for x-ray or electron diffraction...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... model, and describes the most common methods of x-ray diffraction residual stress measurement, namely, single-angle and two angle techniques. It elaborates the major steps involved in x-ray diffraction residual stress measurement, explaining the possible sources of error in stress measurement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... of wide spectral range has allowed the extensive development of synchrotron x-ray topography techniques. General Principles In x-ray diffraction topography, a collimated area-filling ribbon of x-rays is incident on the single-crystal sample at a set Bragg angle, and the corresponding area-filling...
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Published: 15 December 2019
: liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry; LEISS: low-energy ion-scattering spectroscopy; MFS: molecular fluorescence spectroscopy; NAA: neutron activation analysis; NMR: nuclear magnetic resonance; OM: optical metallography; RS: Raman spectroscopy; SAXS: small-angle x-ray scattering; SEM: scanning More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0005693
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... SANS small-angle neutron scattering SAM scanning Auger microscopy SAXS small-angle x-ray scattering SEM scanning electron microscopy SERS surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy SFC supercritical fluid chromatography SIMS secondary ion mass spectroscopy...
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Published: 15 December 2019
: low-energy ion-scattering spectroscopy; MFS: molecular fluorescence spectroscopy; NAA: neutron activation analysis; NMR: nuclear magnetic resonance; OM: optical metallography; RS: Raman spectroscopy; SAXS: small-angle x-ray scattering; SEM: scanning electron microscopy; SIMS: secondary ion mass More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
...- to 200-keV electrons have a wavelength of the order of 10 −3 nm. Consequently, the diffracting angles for x-rays are typically tens of degrees, but the diffracting angles for electrons are typically tenths of a degree. For small angles, θ = sin θ, and considering only first-order reflections ( n = 1...