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slowest-diffusing elements

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract Homogenization heat treatment can be useful for improving the performance and life of an alloy while in service or for improving the processability during fabrication and hot working. This article describes the identification of incipient melt point, slowest-diffusing elements...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... in Fig. 20 . In a broad sense, they are called loads. Generally, the nonpart loads are divided into three types: Furnace accessories (predominantly metal alloy), including grate, firing ring, U-tube, fixture, roller, fan and diffuser Heating elements Insulation Fig. 20 Loads...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003611
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... be due to electrical potential or concentration gradients or to migration along preferential paths, and so may correspond to any of several rate laws, as shown in Fig. 2 . Where a diffusion process is rate controlling, the kinetics usually follow a parabolic rate law, in which the rate progressively...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006266
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... depends on the extent and scale of solute segregation. Chemical diffusivities are dependent on the local chemistry. Critical to developing an optimized homogenization cycle is identifying the incipient melt point (IMP), slowest-diffusing element(s), and microstructural scale for homogenization. Methods...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... in diameter) in the sample by electron microdiffraction. In the past 10 years, energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometers have been added to transmission electron microscope columns, allowing determination of the elemental composition of small volumes (<50 nm in diameter) in the sample. With the ability...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... composition is not uniform outside the envelope of the grain. Also recall that the slowest diffusion process takes place in the solid phase. In the case of metals, the Lewis number is typically higher than 300, while only a ratio equal to 50 was used in the simulation shown in Fig. 3 . The temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... nickel or inward aluminum diffusion ( Ref 31 ). Inward diffusion coatings may require a higher temperature anneal to convert a very brittle Ni 2 Al 3 phase into NiAl. Inward coatings also have a higher level of substrate elements present. At or below 1000 °C (1830 °F), very long oxidative lifetimes can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006272
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... during quenching is maximized in a so-called critical temperature range, because the diffusion of dissolved species and the subsequent nucleation of precipitates exhibit opposite behavior as a function of temperature. At high temperatures, nucleation rates are small because of the low degree...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., pore shrinkage can still be assumed to occur at a relatively rapid rate. Diffusional Densification via Coble and Nabarro-Herring Creep Of the various densification mechanisms, densification via diffusion takes place at the slowest rate; thus, these mechanisms only become dominant in the final...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... A at temperature T 2 , there is 61% α phase containing 1.5% element A and 39% β phase containing 13% element A. A cooling rate slow enough to permit diffusion to occur will result in equilibrium conditions, that is, 95% α at 4% alloy content A and 5% β at 42% alloy content A at room temperature. What would...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006557
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
.... Reducing the particle size increases the rate at which sintering and densification occur ( Ref 34 ). Choosing fast-diffusing alloying elements or shielding gases within a metal alloy matrix can also increase sintered component densification ( Ref 34 ). Improper Binder Burnout Binder removal is one...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract This article describes the general categories and metallurgy of heat treatable aluminum alloys. It briefly reviews the key impurities and each of the principal alloying elements in aluminum alloys, namely, copper, magnesium, manganese, silicon, zinc, iron, lithium, titanium, boron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005882
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... optimize manufacturing processes in terms of material costs and performance. Steel Chemistry and Microstructure Of all the elements that are used to alloy with iron, carbon has the greatest effect on strength, hardness, and phase transformation kinetics. Steels with low carbon content, i.e...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... segregation or elemental depletion due to grain-boundary precipitation processes. Vacancies and interstitials are the basic defects produced by irradiation and can reach concentrations that are orders of magnitude greater than the thermal equilibrium concentrations. Diffusion of solutes by vacancy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005950
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Metallurgical transformations for interpretation of calculated evolution of microstructure Diffusion and precipitation reactions for interpretation of calculated element (carbon, nitrogen, etc.) concentration distributions in simulations of thermochemical heat treatment processes such as carburizing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., and other classical techniques despite their usefulness for many applications. Today (2019), ICP-MS is recognized as the most widely used and most quantitative technique for trace elemental analysis. ICP-MS provides quantitative elemental concentration, isotopic ratio, and nanoparticle concentration...
Book Chapter

Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002172
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... used Material to be cut Speed, feed, and depth of cut These five general variables can be broken down further into: Rigidity of machine, cutter, and workpiece Variations in speed from the slowest to the fastest, depending on machine used Variations in feed and depth of cut from...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... and Ar temperatures are lower than Ae temperatures) because continuous heating and cooling leave insufficient time for complete diffusion-controlled transformation at the true equilibrium temperatures. In addition to iron and carbon, steels contain many other elements that shift the boundaries...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
..., and diffusible hydrogen potential. Fused fluxes are manufactured by melting, drying, and then grinding the raw materials. Agglomerated fluxes are manufactured by binding the raw materials together and heating them as a ceramic. Because of the lower manufacturing temperatures, agglomerated fluxes may contain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article provides information on the various stages of quenching, sources of distortion, and factors that affect the creation of thermal gradients. It reviews the various determinations of heat-transfer coefficients by the thermal conductivity and diffusivity method, analytical...