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slowest-diffusing elements

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
...Abstract Abstract Homogenization heat treatment can be useful for improving the performance and life of an alloy while in service or for improving the processability during fabrication and hot working. This article describes the identification of incipient melt point, slowest-diffusing elements...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... (148.32 lb) Total weight of parts 135 kg (296.64 lb) The comparison of the calculated and measured values at the load center and corner points is given in Fig. 32 . The curves show that there is not much difference between the measured temperature values of the slowest and fastest parts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006272
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... enthalpy is high for slow cooling, whereas hardness after aging is high for rapid quenching. Strong precipitation during cooling causes a loss of alloying elements available for subsequent aging. For both enthalpy and hardness values, thin vertical lines indicate the exact time of validity. The slowest...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006266
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... depends on the extent and scale of solute segregation. Chemical diffusivities are dependent on the local chemistry. Critical to developing an optimized homogenization cycle is identifying the incipient melt point (IMP), slowest-diffusing element(s), and microstructural scale for homogenization. Methods...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003611
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... state, Al 2 O 3 exhibits the slowest transport rates for metal and oxygen ions and so should provide the best oxidation resistance. Alloying requirements for the production of specific oxide scales have been translated into minimum levels of the scale-forming elements, or combinations of elements...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... with a 300 mm (12 in.) diameter. The slowest cooling rate represents the center of the cylinder. As shown in Fig. 9 , the rate of cooling and the position of the CCT curves depend on the cooling medium (water produced the highest cooling rate followed by oil and air, respectively). The more severe...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...-dependency into the densification process, pore shrinkage can still be assumed to occur at a relatively rapid rate. Of the various densification mechanisms, densification via diffusion takes place at the slowest rate; thus, these mechanisms only become dominant in the final stages of densification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... speed can interact to produce the same weld volumes. Voltages were adjusted as appropriate for the increase in deposit rate. Heat input for the three welds is within a 10% spread between the slowest- and highest-speed welds. Normal electrode extension for solid SAW wire is approximately 7 to 12...
Book Chapter

Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002172
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... Power available Cutting tool used Material to be cut Speed, feed, and depth of cut Rigidity of machine, cutter, and workpiece Variations in speed from the slowest to the fastest, depending on machine used Variations in feed and depth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... results shown in Fig. 3 , the composition field in the liquid is almost uniform in between the dendrite arms. Oppositely, liquid composition is not uniform outside the envelope of the grain. Also recall that the slowest diffusion process takes place in the solid phase. In the case of metals, the Lewis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006557
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... diffusion and a transfer of atoms and vacancies to and from pinned dislocations that can be used to climb around the obstacle and through the lattice. The Coble and Nabarro-Herring creep mechanisms are diffusion processes that take place at the slowest rates and thus primarily at the latter stages...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005882
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... microstructures for AISI 1042 carbon steel ( Ref 4 ). The coarse annealed microstructure has the slowest response to heating, while the fine tempered-martensite structure converts to austenite more quickly. Modeling a scanning induction hardening ocess for an axle shaft was used to predict temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... strengthening can be obtained by this martensitic transformation when the alloy content is low; however, this increase in strength is not as great as that achieved in ferrous alloys. The slowest cooling (15 °C/h, or 25 °F/h) promotes the greatest amount of α 2 . Yield strength strongly depends on cooling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...) interstitial flux, and (c) and (d) the effect of diffusion coefficients on the depth distribution for A atoms in an AB alloy. J, C, and D refer to the flux, concentration, and diffusion coefficient, respectively, of diffusing species defined by the subscript, by way of the complementary species defined...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... rate. The rate of oxidation is determined by the slowest step in the oxidation process. In some less-common cases a volatile, gaseous oxide, or highly porous solid oxide scale may form where the consumption rate may be controlled by the metal-oxygen reaction or by diffusion through a gaseous boundary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... crack growth is controlled by the slowest process in this sequence. Additionally, in some cases, hydrogen can enter the material during fabrication without an aggressive external environment. Several hydrogen-assisted cracking mechanisms have been proposed to explain how hydrogen enhances corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005408
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
..., average strain of 0.8, partially recrystallized (after 10 s). (b) Corresponding finite-element method simulation. Local strain variation: blue = 0 (upper left); red = 1.54 (predominantly lower right) Fig. 7 Variation of flow stress during hot compression testing of AA 3104 Fig. 9...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... the slowest of the three stages. Typically, it is this stage where most distortion occurs. Figure 1 shows the progression of the three phases of quenching during the immersion of a solid cylinder. Table 2 lists the severity of quench for various quenching media. Note that the agitation or circulation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003588
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... Reaction rate is a kinetic problem and depends on the mechanism of the slowest step of the overall reaction process. On the other hand, the thermodynamic considerations of metal-oxidant equilibria and phase diagrams are invaluable tools for the interpretation of the oxidation mechanisms and processes. Some...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... are thereby spatially separated as they travel down the field-free flight tube. Ions with high velocity speed on ahead and arrive at the detector before lower-velocity heavier ions. The balance of acceleration voltage, flight time, and spectral cycles is selected so that the slowest and heaviest ion (e.g...