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slow crack growth

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... shown in Fig. 1 . Here, the three regions of crack-growth behavior can be observed. The first, region I, is characterized by slow growth with a decreasing slope of the crack-growth rate curve. The threshold stress-intensity factor range, Δ K th , bounds this region on the left and is operationally...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article describes eight stages of the atomistic film growth: vaporization of the material, transport of the material to the substrate, condensation and nucleation of the atoms, nuclei growth, interface formation, film growth, changes in structure during the deposition, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005458
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... wetting and essentially defect-free interfaces, whereas different sites may contain unsealed nanovoids that can grow in size. Based on the experimental observations, initial void growth thus appears to occur along particle-matrix interfaces in a manner similar to crack propagation, with only slight...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... materials, environmental, and mechanical parameters. Stress-corrosion cracking failures resemble brittle fracture; typically there is little, if any, indication of metal ductility at the origin of fracture. The cracking actually is a form of subcritical flaw growth, either intergranular or transgranular...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Engineered components fail predominantly in four major ways: fracture, corrosion, wear, and undesirable deformation (i.e., distortion). Typical fracture mechanisms feature rapid crack growth by ductile or brittle cracking; more progressive (subcritical) forms involve crack growth by...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000603
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article is an atlas of fractographs that covers pearlitic and ferritic ductile irons. The fractographs display the following: brittle cleavage fracture; fatigue crack propagation; fatigue and monotonic fracture surfaces; fracture modes in slow monotonic loading and impact loading...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., titanium, and vanadium, tend to reduce susceptibility to slow crack growth, which may be due to changing grain-boundary composition through the dispersoids or through grain refinement. It is important to note that SCC may occur as transgranular or IG cracking mechanisms in the same materials. For...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000630
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
...) Failure of polyethylene copolymer pipe due to slow crack growth. The 60-mm (2.4-in.) diam, 6-mm (0.25-in.) wall thickness, extruded gas pipe (density 0.937 g/cm 3 ) failed after 211 h in a laboratory test at 80 °C (175 °F) and an internal water pressure of 17 kPa (120 psi). Failure initiated near the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000623
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article is an atlas of fractographs that helps in understanding the causes and mechanisms of fracture of titanium alloys and in identifying and interpreting the morphology of fracture surfaces. The fractographs illustrate the fracture surface, fatigue crack growth, intergranular...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article reviews the various types of mechanical testing methods, including hardness testing; tension testing; compression testing; dynamic fracture testing; fracture toughness testing; fatigue life testing; fatigue crack growth testing; and creep, stress-rupture, and stress...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003054
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., and second-phase inclusions slow grain growth and can be used to improve densification. Final-stage sintering is a slow process wherein spherical pores shrink by a diffusion mechanism. If the pores have a trapped gas, solubility of the gas in the matrix will influence the rate of pore elimination...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... stainless steels in boiling magnesium chloride. Source: Ref 11 The linear elastic fracture mechanics approach to the study of SCC is focused on the growth of stress-corrosion cracks in specimens that contain a small preexisting crack. It uses the stress-intensity factor at the crack tip, K I...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... of fatigue-crack fracture in a specimen of AISI type 301 stainless steel that was highly stressed, breaking in 2000 cycles. Crack growth was very irregular, with many pronounced offsets. At center, twin boundaries have affected crack propagation. Area in rectangle is shown at higher magnification in...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... unfurling on mechanical properties of the solidified cast metal. It provides a discussion on the mechanisms of unfurling to determine the casting properties of the metals. These include gas precipitation, shrinkage, linear contraction, dendrite pushing, and nucleation and growth of intermetallics. The...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... modification changes porosity formation in a casting. It describes the mechanisms responsible for silicon modification, as well as the modifications and changes in eutectic nucleation and eutectic grain structure. The article reviews the usage of strontium during process steps in foundry practices. The growth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006280
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
..., compositions, and classifications of wrought brasses and cast brasses. The article provides a discussion on annealing, recrystallization, and grain growth of wrought brasses. Stress relief of wrought brasses, which is typically conducted below the annealing temperatures, is also briefly described...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... alloys, and the effects of cold work on aging response and grain growth with examples. annealing chemical composition fixtures heat treatment precipitation hardening solution heat treatment stress relieving superalloys surface degradation wrought nickel alloys NICKEL ALLOYS derive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
..., their presence retards recrystallization. Because impurities and alloying elements slow grain growth, more time is needed for nucleation and creation of finer recrystallized grain sizes. Solid-solution impurities tend to migrate to dislocations and grain boundaries and slow their motion, thus raising...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006278
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract Cast and wrought coppers can be strengthened by cold working. This article provides information on minor alloying elements, such as beryllium, silicon, nickel, tin, zinc, and chromium, used to strengthen copper. It details annealing and recrystallization and grain growth...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003058
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... the rate of crack propagation in the low-stress-intensity regime. Fig. 29 Schematic representation of crack velocity vs. stress intensity relation for silicate glass in moist and dry conditions The extremely slow growth of a surface crack is important because it can give rise to a...