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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... penetration, fast-cooling weld Rutile 6012 40–60 … 15–25 0–15 10–12 2–6 … … … … … Slags mainly for slag shielding Relatively high hydrogen content (15–30 ppm). High inclusion content in weld deposit 6013 20–40 … 15–25 5–25 1.4–14 0–5 … … … … … Acid-ore 6020 … … X X X...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... Rutile 6012 6013 40–60 20–40 … … 15–25 15–25 0–15 5–25 10–12 1.4–14 2–6 0–5 … … … … … … … … … … Slags mainly for slag shielding Relatively high hydrogen content (15–30 ppm). High inclusion content in weld deposit Acid-ore (a) 6020 … … X X X … X … X … … Relatively high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... the important features of the control-volume-based computational method to review the unique aspects of the processes. Measurement of the properties of alloys and slags is explained and an analysis of the process variants for improving the predictive accuracy of the models is presented. electroslag...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006327
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
.... Source: Ref 6 . (c) Effect of cooling rate on the ferrite fraction. Source: Ref 6 . (d) Effect of the cooling rate on the number of graphite nodules. Source: Ref 12 Fig. 7 Defects in TWDI castings. (a) Skin with flake graphite. (b) Skin with graphite segregation. Source: Ref 22 . (c) Slag...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
..., slag entrapment, solidification cracking, hydrogen cracking, or porosity. References References 1. O'Brien R.L. , Welding Handbook , Vol 11 , AWS , 1991 , p 191 – 232 2. Olson D.L. et al. , Submerged Arc Welding , Vol 6 , 9th ed. , Metals Handbook , American...
Book Chapter

By David V. Neff
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...Abstract Abstract Gas porosity is a major factor in the quality and reliability of castings. The major cause of gas porosity in castings is the evolution of dissolved gases from melting and dross or slag containing gas porosity. Degassing is the process of removing these gases. This article...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., °C (°F) 50–60 30–40 30–40 35–50 (90–110) (55–70) (55–70) (65–90) Alloying additions, kg/Mg (lb/ton) 2–6 0–0.5 0.5–1.0 1–3 (4–12) (0–1.0) (1.0–2.0) (2–6) Slag additions, kg/Mg (lb/ton) 20–25 0 1 7–9 (40–50) (0) (2) (14–18) Total amount of slag, kg/Mg (lb/ton) 20...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
...: lack of fusion, slag entrapment, solidification cracking, and hydrogen cracking. Finally, the article provides information on the safety measures to be followed in this process. References References 1. The Procedure Handbook of Arc Welding , 13th ed. , The Lincoln Electric Company, 1995...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... the heat-affected zone and weld metal microstructure in the early 1980s and 1990s. Applications of computational thermodynamics and kinetics tools to weld metal microstructure prediction for liquid-gas reactions and liquid-slag reactions that happen as a function of high-to-low temperature during fusion...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of steel ESR and superalloy ESR. electroslag remelting solidification plate steels freckles ELECTROSLAG REMELTING (ESR) is a secondary refining process ( Fig. 1 ), where a consumable electrode is melted by immersion in a molten flux (slag) consisting primarily of fluorspar (CaF 2...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...Refractories as a source of slag based on typical composition Table 1 Refractories as a source of slag based on typical composition Type Composition, % Softening point SiO 2 Al 2 O 3 Cr 2 O 3 TiO 2 CaO MgO Fe 2 O 3 Other °C °F Fireclay Super duty 49–56 40–44...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005591
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
...Energy balance in the slag phase of electroslag welding Table 1 Energy balance in the slag phase of electroslag welding Parameter (a) Energy dissipated, % Heat transfer from slag: To copper shoe 36.10 To base plates 20.22 To liquid metal 8.71 Heat used to heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001371
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
...Energy balance in the slag phase of electroslag welding Table 1 Energy balance in the slag phase of electroslag welding Parameter (a) Energy dissipated, % Heat transfer from slag:  To copper shoe 36.10  To base plates 20.22  To liquid metal 8.71 Heat used to heat...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... the contents of total oxygen and various deoxidizing elements in a steel bath Fig. 6 Schematic cross section of a typical electric-arc furnace showing the application of different refractories Fig. 5 Composition of (a) steel bath and (b) slag in a basic oxygen furnace converter...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., electrodes; 14, slag; 15, melt; 16, argon plug; 17, vacuum vessel; 18, vessel drive; 19, emergency pit Abstract Abstract The melting process often includes refining and treating the metal. The choice of which type of melting to use depends on a number of factors: type of alloy being melted...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... are detailed. Castability of Steel Castability of an alloy is influenced by four parameters: Liquid metal fluid life (typically compared as fluidity from spiral tests) Solidification shrinkage Slag/dross formation tendency Pouring temperature These parameters may be interrelated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003841
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... at a High Temperature C 863 Test Method for Evaluating Oxidation Resistance of SiC Refractories at Elevated Temperatures C 874 Practice for Rotary Slag Testing of Refractory Brick at High Temperature C 980 Standard Specification for Industrial Chimney Lining Brick C 987 Practice for Vapor...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... portion of the cupola known as the well, where it is discharged into the foundry from the taphole by intermittent tapping or by continuous flow of molten metal and slag. Melting in cupola furnaces dates back several centuries to old cask-type units that were blown with hand-pumped bellows and hand...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... 10 0.4 1.05–1.50 1.50–2.35 2.235–3.50 Theoretical weight ratios: desulfurizer to iron to achieve 0.008% S in various systems Table 1 Theoretical weight ratios: desulfurizer to iron to achieve 0.008% S in various systems Type of melt Slag composition T , K C S (× 10 4...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003803
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., for example ore (as-mined, as-concentrated, as-roasted), slag, crucibles, molds, and the remains of furnaces, kilns, and hearths. Other material includes hammers, anvils, and other shaping tools, along with partially formed objects and casting debris such as molds, misruns, sprues and runners, defective...