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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005947
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... size and shape changes. The article also provides information on the carriers of distortion potential that cause measureable size and shape changes. austenitizing carburizing deformation dimensional change distortion heat treatment phase transformation steel thermal stress DIMENSIONAL...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005940
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
.... Distortion engineering aims to compensate distortion using the so-called compensation potential (Level 3). Level 3 discusses the measures to improve homogeneity, and respectively the symmetry, of the carriers of the distortion potential. The article also discusses the compensation of the resulting size and...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... subsequently machining the section to the desired size. The distortion due to mold restraint and its elimination by redesigning or by adding tie bars are described. The article reviews the distortion that occurs in heat treating and its solution. It concludes with a discussion on the influence of alloy to be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Distortion failures can be plastic or elastic and may or may not be accompanied by fracture. There are two main types of distortion: size distortion, which refers to a change in volume (growth or shrinkage), and shape distortion (bending or warping), which refers to a change in geometric form. Most of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005936
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... is typical in case hardening and nitriding. Mutual achievement of the desired component properties is inevitably connected to size and shape changes, as defined by Wyss in Ref 1 and also discussed in the article “Basics of Distortion and stress generation during Heat Treatment” in this volume...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005956
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... inevitably connected. Breaking down the volume change into the three dimensions is rather difficult. Plasticity and local stresses are doing their parts to obtain a system of complex interactions, leading into the final breakdown of size and shape changes in each direction. Up to now an analytical...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... volumetric shrinkage, the strength of the surrounding dendritic skeleton, the grain size and shape, the nucleation of supersaturated gas into pores or crack surfaces, the segregation of solute impurities, and the formation of interfering solid precipitates. The subsequent refilling of hot tears with...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005950
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... reworking by controlling distortion (size and shape changes) Improvement of product performance and lifetime (fatigue, creep, corrosion, wear resistance) by controlling the microstructure and residual stress distributions Energy and time saving by computer-aided design of new heat treatment strategies...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... reviews the determination of area-amplitude and distance-amplitude curves of a straight-beam pulse-echo ultrasonic inspection system. The article discusses the three principal conventional manual ultrasonic sizing techniques: 6 dB drop technique, maximum-amplitude technique, and 20 dB drop technique. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006472
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) is an ultrasonic technique used to detect diffracted waves from crack tips and to size the cracks from the arrival times of those waves. This article discusses the basic considerations and provides information on probe selection, gain setting, and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article provides general guidelines for casting design to provide progressive solidification, minimize heat concentration, eliminate cores, and prevent distortion. Casting design also affects tolerances. Casting tolerances depend on the alloy being poured, the size of the casting...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... another component. Distortion failures can be either plastic or elastic, and may or may not be accompanied by fracture. Two main types of distortion are size distortion, which refers to a change in volume (growth or shrinkage); and shape distortion (bending or warping), which refers to a change in...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... interest. Table 2 Factors influencing abrasive wear behavior Abrasive properties Particle size Particle shape Hardness Yield strength Fracture properties Concentration Contact conditions Force/impact level Velocity Impact/impingement angle Sliding/rolling Temperature Wet/drypH Wear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... heat fluxes at the surface of the parts. Because of the complex geometry and large size of parts, a single thermocouple is inadequate to determine the heat flux at the surface of a part. Many thermocouples are needed and provide additional resolution. However, the solution of the problem requires even...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... R PH . Diffusion-controlled dislocation creep and dislocation climb have been neglected, because deformation during quenching happens during very short durations. Because dislocation density and grain size do not significantly change during quenching, and quench-induced precipitates are relatively...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... martensite. Such transformations provide the basis of the heat treatments applied to steels. Thus, the fortuitous high-temperature stability of austenite in iron and iron-carbon alloys and the solid-state transformation of austenite upon cooling create many opportunities to optimize shape, section size...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... differ widely) poses special problems if distortion and stresses are to be minimized. If all workpieces were symmetrical and alike in shape (no odd configurations) and were of the same size and/or weight, obtaining the desired properties would be simple. In practice, however, such conditions rarely exist...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... malleable state into very strong, structurally useful engineering materials. The strengthening mechanism of precipitation hardening gave industry a strong, stiff, low-density material that was easily formable into many different shapes and sizes. Aviation was the driving force for the development of these...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... producing their products or systems. In a broad sense, form, fit, function, and service life represent the technically relevant properties of a product. The form, or physical characteristics of components or products, includes the size and shape of a product as well as the materials of construction and the...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Grain refinement in aluminum casting alloys tends to reduce the amount of porosity and the size of the pores and to improve mechanical properties, especially fatigue strength. This article provides information on measurement of grain size in alloys and describes the mechanisms of grain...