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sintering densification

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Published: 30 September 2015
Fig. 4 Sintering densification parameter versus sintering time for tungsten compacts sintered at 2100 °C (3810 °F). D s is sintered density; D g is green density; D t is theoretical density. 3N tungsten powder with particle sizes (FSSS) of 2.15 μm and 4.05 μm. Source: Ref 7 More
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Published: 30 September 2015
Fig. 30 The conceptual outline of supersolidus liquid-phase sintering densification for three particles: (a) initial particle packing, (b) formation of initial liquid with insufficient wetting of grain boundaries for densification, (c) viscous flow densification of semisolid particles, and (d More
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003054
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... such as reaction sintering and self-propagating, high-temperature synthesis. It also describes several pressure densification methods, including hot isostatic pressing, gas pressure sintering, molten particle deposition, and sol-gel processing. The article concludes with a section on grain growth that discusses...
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Published: 01 November 1995
Fig. 12 Role of densification during liquid-phase sintering as a function of rearrangement, solution precipitation, and final pore removal. (a) Schematic of typical microstructure and pore size of three stages of liquid-phase sintering. (b) Plot of densification versus sintering time for Al 2 More
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Published: 01 January 1997
Fig. 7 Progressive densification and grain growth at several stages of sintering: (a) initial stage, (b) intermediate stage, (c) final stage, and (d) fracture surface. The fracture surface micrograph shows the desirable placement of spherical pores on grain boundaries in the final stage More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... Abstract This article discusses continuum modeling, which is the most relevant approach in modeling grain growth, densification, and deformation during sintering. Continuum plasticity models are frequently used to describe the mechanical response of metal powders during compaction. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... (or pressure) sintering. This article provides information on the mechanisms and theoretical analysis of sintering and focuses on the types, mechanisms, process and microstructural variables, computer simulation, stages, and fundamentals of densification and grain growth of solid-state sintering and liquid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005502
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
..., but the polymers are pyrolyzed during sintering, resulting in 0.5 to 1.5 wt% mass loss. Likewise, pore space is not conserved during compaction and sintering, so bulk volume is not conserved. Even so, mass conservation equations are invoked to track densification, while momentum conservation is used to follow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... °C (32 °F). Higher dew points can activate a chemical vapor transport mechanism that adversely affects the densification process by reducing the surface area. Sintering can also be affected by the dew point within the compact. During sintering, water vapor is formed inside the compact by the reaction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... Abstract The residual porosity in sintered refractory metal ingots is usually eliminated by different densification processes, such as thermomechanical processes. This article focuses on thermomechanical processing of tungsten, molybdenum, and tantalum. It provides an overview of liquid-phase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005531
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... powders into near-net or net shape parts combined with densification or consolidation processes (e.g., sintering) for the development of final material and design properties. Powder metallurgy parts are used in a wide variety of industries, with three broad categories of applications: Lower-cost...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006110
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... give the powder mass integrity and mechanical strength. Advanced Stages of Sintering (High-Temperature) Advanced stages of sintering (high-temperature) influence several important characteristics, such as: Densification: As the sintering process continues at higher temperatures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006042
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... gas becomes trapped within the pores during sintering densification. Because argon has a low solubility in the metal alloy and its diffusivity is also low, it remains trapped within the pores during HIP. The material densifies with HIP up to the point where the pressure of argon within the pore...
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Published: 01 November 1995
Fig. 8 Density and grain size of TiO 2 vs. sintering temperatures to show rapid densification with little grain growth at low temperatures and rapid grain growth with little densification at high temperatures More
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Published: 30 September 2015
Fig. 4 Six distinct mechanisms can contribute to the sintering of a consolidated mass of crystalline particles: (1) surface diffusion, (2) lattice diffusion from the surface, (3) vapor transport, (4) grain boundary diffusion, (5) lattice diffusion from the grain boundary, and (6) plastic flow More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... shrinkage. There is no universally applicable theory of sintering, and much is still to be understood about the process. In general there are six distinct, but not necessarily sequential, stages: initial particle bonding, neck growth, pore channel closure, pore rounding, densification or pore shrinkage...
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Published: 01 November 1995
Fig. 4 Plot of grain size vs. pore size during sintering to show the conditions under which grain growth can cause a breakaway from the pores, eventually leading to inhibited densification. Desirable sintering pathways avoid the breakaway condition by sustaining pore shrinkage at low More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006114
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
..., and their applications have increased. Progress in production, compaction, and sintering has resulted in new techniques such as powder forging, surface densification, and several finishing treatments. These developments, as discussed elsewhere in this Volume, have enabled PM parts to compete successfully with wrought...
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Published: 30 September 2015
Fig. 19 Schematic diagram comparing the effects of solubility on densification or swelling during liquid-phase sintering. Source: Ref 105 More
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Published: 01 November 1995
Fig. 11 Schematic diagram showing grain growth, densification, and coarsening kinetics vs. reciprocal temperature. Temperature ranges suitable for rate-controlled sintering and fast firing are indicated. More