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sinter hardening

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... possible sintering temperatures. Source: Ref 3 Table 8 Properties of common powder metallurgy sinter-hardening steels Metal Powder Industries Federation designation Typical chemistry, % Density, g/cm 3 Ultimate tensile strength Rotating bending fatigue limit, 90% survival Apparent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005971
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... Abstract Powder metallurgy (PM) processes include press and sinter hardening, metal injection molding, powder forging, hot isostatic pressing, powder rolling, and spray forming. This article provides an overview of PM processing methods and general considerations of heat treatment of PM parts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... Abstract This article discusses continuum modeling, which is the most relevant approach in modeling grain growth, densification, and deformation during sintering. Continuum plasticity models are frequently used to describe the mechanical response of metal powders during compaction. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005502
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... Abstract This article presents the governing equations and methodologies to model the press and sinter powder metallurgy, including continuum, micromechanical, multiparticle, and molecular dynamics approaches. It describes the constitutive relation for compaction and sintering. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005867
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... particles (25 to 250 μm, or 1 to 10 mils, diameter) consisting of the alloy composition are pressed into a die to form the general shape of a gear or sprocket. After sintering and re-pressing, the final component can reach a density of greater than 90% of theoretical density. Just like steels and cast irons...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... Abstract Sintering is a thermal treatment process in which a powder or a porous material, already formed into the required shape, is converted into a useful article with the requisite microstructure. Sintering can be classified as solid-state, viscous, liquid-phase, and pressure-assisted (or...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006110
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... (PM) industry. Improvements in both production rates and properties are possible as sintering temperatures increase above 1120 °C (2050 °F). Rounding of the porosity results in increased strengths, especially impact strength. Higher diffusion rates also increase the strength and hardenability of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003054
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... smelting and melting operations. Carbon electrodes carry the high-current/low-voltage power to the work to be heated. They are rarely used for sintering operations. Induction furnaces are generally used for melting and surface hardening operations. They are sometimes used in sintering operations in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006118
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... Abstract This article describes the sintering behavior of austenitic, ferritic, and martensitic stainless steels. It presents different sintering schedules that are selected by Metal Powder Industries Federation (MPIF). The article provides information on the equipment and atmospheres used for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... a workpiece is explained, with emphasis on the skin effect. The article discusses typical procedures for induction hardening of steel, namely, austenitizing and quenching to form martensite either on the surface (case hardening) or through the entire section (through hardening). It briefly describes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006128
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
..., sintered at 1240 °C (2265 °F) to full density in a vacuum at 0.1 Pa (1.5 × 10 −5 psi) Fig. 6 Effect of austenitizing time at 1210 °C (2210 °F) on the martensite start temperature of a high-speed steel containing 0.9% C, 4.1% Cr, 6.4% W, 5% Mo, and 1.8% V. Source: Ref 14 Fig. 7...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... become sintered together to make hard cakes, especially at the bottom area. Proper powder sizes should be selected. Disc-shaped pellets of commercial ammonium chloride for fertilizers were used very satisfactorily. However, they were substituted with hydrogen chloride gas because of the availability of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract Flame hardening is a heat treating process in which a thin surface shell of a steel part is heated rapidly to a temperature above the critical temperatures of the steel. The versatility of flame-hardening equipment and the wide range of heating conditions obtainable with gas burners...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... to 20 mm (0.6 to 0.8 in.) were compacted to 7.35 g/cm 3 , sintered, hardened and tempered, and then tumbled before being 100% inspected. After a hardness check by eddy current testing ( Fig. 24 ), the parts were visually inspected on all surfaces and edges for damage. The visual inspection was also...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., precious metal overlays, tungsten, molybdenum, and aluminum, and composite materials. It concludes by discussing the composite manufacturing methods such as infiltration, press-sinter, press-sinter-repress process, press-sinter-extrude process, internal oxidation, and preoxidized-press-sinter-extrude...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... or to improve dimensional tolerances, including the correction of any distortion that may have occurred during sintering. Due to the high rate of work hardening, austenitic stainless steels respond poorly to re-pressing. With ferritic PM stainless steels, re-pressing of medium- and high-density...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... exaggerated in measurements of apparent hardness, is shown in Fig. 12 . The reduction in hardenability was caused by the reduced thermal conductivity of the porous sintered compact. The effect of porosity on depth of carbonitriding is shown in Fig. 13 . The porosity of the sintered compact enabled the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001106
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... PCBN tool applications Application Hard cast iron  Ni-Hard  Alloy cast iron  Chilled cast iron  Nodular cast iron Soft cast iron  Gray cast iron Sintered iron  Powder metallurgy products Hardened steel  Tool steels  Die steels  Case-hardened steels  A, D, and M series steels  Bearing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006557
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... parameters specific to the alloy system and selected processing technique. This article discusses the formation of defects within metal additive manufacturing, namely fusion-based processes and solid-state/sintering processes. Defects observed in fusion-based processes include lack of fusion, keyhole...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003112
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... FLN6-4405 89.35–93.95 0.4–0.7 … 5.00–7.00 0.65–0.95 FLNC-4405 90.35–96.95 0.4–0.7 1.0–3.0 1.00–3.00 0.65–0.95 P/M sinter-hardened steel FLN2-4408 93.15–97.75 0.6–0.9 … 1.00–3.00 0.65–0.95 FLN4-4408 91.15–95.75 0.6–0.9 … 3.00–5.00 0.65–0.95 FLN6-4408 89.15–93.75...