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single-wafer metal-etch systems

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...Abstract Abstract This article presents a detailed examination of corrosion at the various production stages of wafer fabrication. The corrosion issues related to batch metal-etch systems and single-wafer metal-etch systems are also discussed. The article provides a case study, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... air quality. A serious problem in semiconductor manufacturing is hazy wafers. Reasons for the occurrence of hazy wafers include particles, roughness, adsorbed organics and metal oxides, and salt formation. Cleanroom air monitoring for airborne molecular contaminants is commonly performed as part...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... a limited number of other materials are also available in wafer form. Insulating or metal substrates may also be used in some applications; however, their characterization is not the focus here. In some cases the wafer itself is the basis for a device, such for single-crystal silicon photovoltaics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006116
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
.... It provides several suggestions to promote and encourage the safety of those performing metallographic preparation and analysis. chemical etching drying ferrous powders grinding metallic specimens metallographic analysis metallographic preparation mounting polishing powder metallurgy sample...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009074
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of debris. This is the preferred method for sectioning if a wafering saw is available. High-speed saws must never be used because sparks will be created on contact with the titanium fastener, degrading and cracking the composite. To etch the titanium fastener in the assembly to show the microstructure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... amount of the underlying metal in the fracture surface by chemical etching or electropolishing. However, care must be taken to avoid formation of gas bubbles, which can deform and fragment the replica. This technique alters or destroys the fine fractographic features in the area replicated, preventing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... 52. “ X-Ray Topography Imaging System ,” Rigaku Corp. , https://rigaku.com/en/products/xrm/xrtmicron 53. Klapper H. , Defects in Non-Metal Crystals , Characterization of Crystal Growth Defects by X-Ray Methods , Tanner B.K. and Bowen D.K. , Ed., Plenum Press , New York...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... used for growing materials, for example, single-crystal or polycrystalline wafers, fibers, porous materials, particles, and so on. Sometimes, solid particles can even be grown in the gas phase without solid substrates (homogeneous nucleation). Growth is usually performed under vacuum conditions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... 39 Miniature ceramic capacitors constructed of multiple layers of high-dielectric-constant ceramic alternated with layers of conductive metallization. The relative size of a single capacitor is evident when compared to the head of a match. Fig. 40 Diagram illustrating the layered...
Book Chapter

By Pel Lynah
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... abrasives, or inadequate cleaning of workpieces. In single-piece lapping, concave or convex laps are individually contoured to the workpiece. The laps should be made of fine-grain cast iron, which is suitable for lapping virtually any metal if the process is continued for enough time. Any of several...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627082136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... specimen preparation for all structural analysis techniques cannot be overemphasized. In many cases, apparently featureless fracture or polished cross sections have been taken to indicate amorphous or single-phase coating. Subsequent etching or diffraction analysis has shown the presence of grain or phase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...Etchants for examination of titanium and titanium alloys Table 1 Etchants for examination of titanium and titanium alloys Etchant Comments Macroetchants 50 mL HCl, 50 mL H 2 O General-purpose etch for α + β alloys 30 mL HNO 3 , 3 mL HF, 67 mL H 2 O (slow) to 10 mL HNO 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005708
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... at the present time, there are single functional layers for metal-substrate-supported cells that currently are thermally sprayed successfully. For the operation of a SOFC, a number of cells must be integrated into a stack, which allows for the gas supply, including sealing and the electrical contact...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... specimens should be sectioned perpendicular to their axis using a precision diamond saw with either a metal-bonded diamond wafering blade or an ultrathin aluminum oxide abrasive blade. Generally, an abrasive cutoff blade selected to cut the substrate effectively will be the best blade for the combination...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... the specimen is properly prepared to at least 600 grit, it is almost ready for polishing to achieve a scratch-free mirror finish. The specimen must be cleaned thoroughly in running water to remove all grinding debris, and it can also be etched in 2% nital to remove the disturbed metal layer on the surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006360
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... a mechanically durable bond. Thin metallic or carbide interlayers may also be used to improve adhesion for diamond coating deposition ( Ref 24 ). Diamondlike carbon and diamond deposition typically occur in a batch process for simplicity of atmosphere control and multistep processing within a single chamber...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... and symmetry of the single crystal (in this case a (0001) single-crystal wafer). The powder diffraction pattern is comprised of rings also representing lattice planes and indicating there is a random orientation of the crystallites in the x-ray beam. In this case of a random oriented powder, each crystallite...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... is the ability to focus simultaneously on both the highs and lows of rough surfaces. In addition to imaging naturally rough surfaces, such as metal fractures, secondary electron imaging can also be used to examine the surfaces of polished and etched metallographic samples. The fact that secondary electron...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... be accommodated by most SEMs, and SEMs equipped with large sample chambers can readily accommodate considerably larger samples, such as 15 and 20 cm silicon wafers from microelectronics production lines. No preparation is typically required for clean metal samples. Nonconductive samples or samples...