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single-image techniques

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... The article discusses the three major inspection techniques for tubular sections, namely, the double-wall, double-image technique; the double-wall, single-image technique; and the single-wall, single-image technique. It illustrates the arrangements of penetrameters and identification markers...
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 16 Schematic of the double-wall, single-image inspection technique applied to a circumferential butt weld in a large-diameter pipe showing relation of radiation beam, weld, and film More
Image
Published: 01 June 2012
Fig. 3 Light microscopy image of as-cut surfaces of a stainless steel stent. This image was produced from multiple images combined using an extended depth-of-field technique to allow the surfaces of interest to be in focus in a single image. More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or sequentially by the repositioning of a single camera. The resulting image pairs are viewed with a stereoviewer, enabling the observation of three-dimensional features and characteristics. Similar techniques are used with the scanning electron microscope by the capture of sequential images, with the second...
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 28 Secondary electron image of a Nd 2 Fe 14 B single crystal grown using flux growth synthesis. Type I magnetic contrast clearly shows the maze pattern domains, typical of these uniaxial materials. The large depth of field, characteristic of scanning electron imaging techniques More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 17 Schematic of techniques employing different arrangements of radiation source, cylinder, and film for the single-wall, single-image radiography of cylindrical sections using external and internal radiation sources. See text for discussion. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...Abstract Abstract This article introduces various techniques commonly used in the characterization of semiconductors, namely single-crystal, polycrystalline, amorphous, oxide, organic, and low-dimensional semiconductors and semiconductor devices. The discussion covers material classification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... of a single crystal was recorded as early as 1931 by Berg ( Ref 1 ) and later by Barrett ( Ref 2 ), developing the technique commonly known as Berg-Barrett reflection topography, which is used to study large-sized crystals. Subsequently, the x-ray topography technique was developed to image and characterize...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., surface (Rayleigh) wave and ultrasonic polar scan techniques. electronic equipment pulse-echo method single-element transducer-based system surface wave technique transducers transmission method ultrasonic inspection ultrasonic polar scan technique THIS ARTICLE CONSIDERS the two primary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and features observed during a failure analysis investigation is photography. Failure analysis photographic imaging is a combination of both science and art; experience and proper imaging techniques are required to produce an accurate and meaningful fracture surface photograph. This article reviews...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... , 20 ). Instead of using a conventional single probe consisting of transmitting and receiving coils in the same housing, various specialized eddy current techniques have been adapted. One such example is an array eddy current probe having several coils configured in a two-dimensional planar format...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., which helps minimize the lift-off variations. Considering the noise source in the eddy-current method, having a small variation in the lift-off is a big advantage over many single-probe-based scan techniques. In many cases, advanced signal-processing algorithms can be used to produce more intuitive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... composition, and crystallographic orientation, this technique works best for single crystals of uniform composition with a flat surface. As the ion beam is rastered over the surface, material is removed at a nominally fixed rate, and microstructural information can be collected via secondary electron imaging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... to determine both trace, major, and minor elements in a single experiment with minimum chemical interferences. Development of a similar technique, for isotope and trace analysis—namely inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)—began in the 1980s and is currently considered as equally...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... useful in characterizing the junction. Topographic imaging techniques aid investigation of heterojunctions. Topographs can be taken of samples prepared with single or multiple films to reveal the misfit dislocations and other interfacial defects. The defect distribution can then be correlated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006851
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., with accompanying software capability, a computer-controlled digital microscope or specimen stage can be used to acquire multiple images at different focal planes and combine the images into a single image, a technique known as “focus-stacking” or “Z-stacking.” This ability to readily capture multiple focal plane...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... machines or noncontact visual sensors with image analysis capabilities. The type of techniques and equipment required to perform a dimensional inspection depends on a number of factors, such as the size and shape of the part, speed of inspection/automation, tolerance requirements, portability...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Single crystal or powder Crystal perfection Direct imaging Single crystal Line shape analysis Powder In general, the techniques are classified as single crystal or polycrystalline. The information obtainable can be categorized as position, intensity, and shape of the diffraction peaks...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...Abstract Abstract Three-dimensional microscopy can be used to reveal the shape, distribution, and connectivity of three-dimensional (3D) features that lie buried within an opaque material. This article discusses several experimental techniques that can be used to generate 3D images...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... techniques that are similar to XCT. These are single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) scanning, which produce cross-sectional displays of the tracer concentration ( Ref 15 ). Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Imaging Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR...