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single-image techniques

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... discusses the three major inspection techniques for tubular sections, namely, the double-wall, double-image technique; the double-wall, single-image technique; and the single-wall, single-image technique. It illustrates the arrangements of penetrameters and identification markers for the radiography of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006438
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract This article provides a discussion on general nondestructive evaluation (NDE) science and considerations for specific technique selection. It explains the basic concept of flaw detection and evaluation and probability of detection. The article provides an overview of NDE methods with...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Measuring the thickness of thin films can be accomplished in many ways. This article focuses on the optical method of single-wavelength ellipsometry, two multiple-wavelength methods of reflectometry and spectroscopic ellipsometry for measuring the thickness of thin films. The general...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006442
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract This article discusses the principles and limitations of micromagnetic techniques, namely, magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN) and magnetoacoustic emission (MAE). It also discusses various factors limiting the establishment of acceptance criteria for test components as they pertain to the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... chemical compositions and product forms that can be manufactured by all available metalworking techniques and standard casting processes. Manufactured forms of aluminum and aluminum alloys include standard mill products (e.g., sheet, plate, foil, rod, bar, wire, tube, pipe, and structural forms) and...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the true nature of the crack. Hence, interpretation of structures using replicas can be more difficult and less reliable than direct observation. Nevertheless, it is a very useful technique when no other means of examination are possible. Fig. 44 Light micrographs comparing images made with (a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... be needed to produce perfect publication-quality images. Electrolytic polishing can be used to prepare specimens with deformation-free surfaces. The technique offers reproducibility and speed. In most cases, the published instructions for electrolytes tell the user to grind the surface to a 600...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... sample is subjected to a single stress pulse with a time variation that is also fully controlled. In addition to the compression and tension recovery Hopkinson bar techniques, a technique has been worked out that allows recovery of the sample after it has been subjected to a compression followed by a...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Analysis , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2002 , p 393 – 417 Failure analysis of cast components typically is conducted in accordance with the techniques described in several articles in Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 of the ASM...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., and etching. It provides information and data on composition, hot working, austenitizing, tempering, and powder metal manufacturing and explains how it affects tool steel microstructure, using more than 100 detailed images. austenitizing hardness macroscopic examination metallographic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... experimental arrangement for developing image and recording current flow. Source: Ref 35 Abstract This article describes the test techniques that are available for monitoring crack initiation and crack growth and for obtaining information on fatigue damage in test specimens. These techniques include...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract This article covers the three most popular techniques used to characterize the very outermost layers of solid surfaces: Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). Some of the more important...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... topographic image of a single crystal was recorded as early as 1931 by Berg ( Ref 1 ) and later by Barrett ( Ref 2 ), developing the technique commonly known as Berg-Barrett reflection topography, which is used to study large-sized crystals. Subsequently, the x-ray topography technique was developed to image...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Electron Microscope: An Appraisal of Techniques and Their Applications , J. Magn. Magn. Mater., Vol 8 ( No. 4 ), 1978 , p 263 – 285 10.1016/0304-8853(78)90096-3 122. Lewis L.H. , Wang J.-Y. , and Canfield P. , Magnetic Domains of Single-Crystal Nd 2 Fe 14 B Imaged by...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001737
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Abstract Spark source mass spectrometry (SSMS) is an analytical technique used for determining the concentration of elements in a wide range of solid samples, including metals, semiconductors, ceramics, geological and biological materials, and air and water pollution samples. This article...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... by ordinary preparation techniques. This layer is extremely thin. In a single steel casting, section thickness can vary from a fraction of an inch to many inches. These differences in section thickness will result in different cooling rates, and thus in different microstructures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., applicable for most of the elements on the periodic table. This specificity renders ICP-OES the preferred technique to determine both trace, major, and minor elements in a single experiment with minimum chemical interferences. Development of a similar technique, for isotope and trace analysis—namely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., and many techniques are well established in procedures, codes, and standards, as well as texts that set out many of the fundamentals ( Ref 6 , 7 ). This article considers the topics of ultrasonic detection, imaging, and sizing of defects. In more mathematical terms, defect characterization is, at its...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006465
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... various electromagnetic and eddy current techniques that can be used to detect changes to nearsurface geometric anomalies or other defects are also discussed. These include ultrasonic techniques, radiographic techniques, and neutron imaging. additive manufacturing cracking eddy current technique...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... features observed during a failure analysis investigation is photography. Failure analysis photographic imaging is a combination of both science and art; experience and proper imaging techniques are required to produce an accurate and meaningful fracture surface photograph. This article reviews...