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single-crystal x-ray diffraction

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article provides a detailed account of the concepts of single-crystal x-ray diffraction (XRD). It begins with a historical review of XRD methods, followed by a description of the various factors involved in crystal symmetry. The article then focuses on the phase problem in x-ray...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Abstract The primary goal of single-crystal x-ray diffraction is to determine crystal structure and the arrangement of atoms in a unit cell. This article discusses the diffraction of light through line gratings and explains the significance of crystal symmetry, space groups, and diffraction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article discusses the techniques and applications of synchrotron x-ray diffraction, providing information on x-ray generation, monochromation, and crystallography. X-ray diffraction techniques covered include single-crystal and powder diffraction. Some of the factors involved...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Abstract In x-ray diffraction residual stress measurement, the strain in the crystal lattice is measured, and the residual stress producing the strain is calculated, assuming a linear elastic distortion of the crystal lattice. This article provides a detailed account of the plane stress elastic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... of diffraction space produces a wealth of information that cannot be obtained by any other technique. The intensities alone are usually sufficient to define a detailed model for the structure. As described in the article “Single-Crystal X-Ray Diffraction” in this Volume, for x-rays such a model contains...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... The XRD techniques are equally applicable to other crystalline materials, such as ceramics, geologic materials, and most inorganic chemical compounds. The article “Single-Crystal X-Ray Diffraction” in this Volume explains how single-crystal x-ray diffraction is used to characterize the crystal structure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
.... It also describes the crystalline nature of certain materials and how the geometry of a unit cell, and hence crystal lattice, affects the direction and intensity of diffracted x-ray beams. The article concludes with several application examples involving measurements on single and polycrystalline...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006643
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article describes the methods of X-ray diffraction analysis, the types of information that can be obtained, and its interpretation. The discussion covers the basic theories of X-rays and various types of diffraction experiments, namely single-crystal methods for polychromatic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... and suitable for imaging single crystals of large cross section with thickness ranging from hundreds of micrometers to several millimeters. Different imperfections are identified through interpretation of contrast using well-established kinematical and dynamical theories of x-ray diffraction. The capability...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... ( Fig. 8 ). Fig. 8 Examples of samples mounted for micro x-ray diffraction. (a) Powdered sample of synthetic hydroxyapatite. (b) Polished thin section of metamorphic rock. (c) Cut slab of Southampton pallasite (length: 13 cm, or 5 in.). (d) Epoxy mount of garnet single crystals from Roberts...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... stresses single crystal orientations temperature effects threshold sensitivity X-ray diffraction X-ray diffractometer X-RAY DIFFRACTION (XRD) is the most extensively used method for identifying and characterizing various aspects of metals related to the arrangements and spacings of their atoms...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... in the article “X-Ray Diffraction Residual Stress Techniques” in this Volume. The pinhole camera, particularly in the back-reflection mode, is an effective and inexpensive instrument for aligning single crystals and surveying polycrystalline samples for crystallite size and perfection. Debye-Scherrer...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... crystals in a single exposure, an asymmetrically cut monochromator crystal can be used to expand the primary x-ray beam. By using two such crystals in succession, rotated 90° from one another about an axis parallel to the diffraction plane, the primary beam can be expanded and made parallel relative...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article provides a brief introduction to neutron diffraction as well as its state-of-the-art capabilities. The discussion covers the general principles of the neutron, neutron-scattering theory, generation of neutrons, types of incident radiation, and purposes of single-crystal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Crystal Structure Database” at http://www2.fiz-karlsruhe.de/icsd_home.html “Cambridge Structural Database” (organic structure data) at https://www.ccdc.cam.ac.uk/solutions/csd-system/components/csd/ “Protein Data Bank” at http://www.rcsb.org/ X-Ray Powder Diffraction Instrumentation X...
Image
Published: 15 December 2019
Fig. 12 Schematic diagrams of the white-beam diffraction pattern recorded in (a) transmission geometry and (b) back-reflection geometry. (c) Actual transmission x-ray diffraction pattern recorded from an (0001) AlN single crystal on an SR-45 20.3 by 25.4 cm (8 by10 in.) x-ray film More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... Fig. 4 Basic geometry of the single-angle technique for x-ray diffraction residual-stress measurement. β, angle of inclination of the instrument; 0, point at which a cone of diffracted radiation originates; 1 and 2, points of the diffracting crystals; S 1 and S 2 , the arc lengths along...
Image
Published: 15 December 2019
Fig. 4 Basic geometry of the single-angle technique for x-ray diffraction residual-stress measurement. β, angle of inclination of the instrument; 0, point at which a cone of diffracted radiation originates; 1 and 2, points of the diffracting crystals; S 1 and S 2 , the arc lengths along More
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... and compounds based on interplanar spacing fingerprints obtained from electron diffraction patterns (equivalent to x-ray powder diffraction, but on very small preselected microstructural features) Determination of crystallographic orientations from single-crystal electron diffraction patterns (equivalent...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... diffraction; others~for example, three-dimensional Samples crystal growth on surfacesare facilitated Form: Solids (metals and semiconductors; insulators Glancing-angle x-ray diffraction: More limited than in special cases) Single crystals or oriented films; low-energy electron diffraction, unless...