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single-crystal neutron diffraction

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Published: 01 January 1986
Fig. 5 Furnace designed for single-crystal neutron diffraction. Note that the beam readily penetrates the platinum foil heat shield. Source: Ref 14 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article provides a brief introduction to neutron diffraction as well as its state-of-the-art capabilities. The discussion covers the general principles of the neutron, neutron-scattering theory, generation of neutrons, types of incident radiation, and purposes of single-crystal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
.... It describes the instrumentation required for, and advancements made in, neutron powder diffraction. The article further explains the texture and residual stress (macrostresses and microstresses) problems that are analyzed using the neutron powder diffraction method. It also outlines the single-crystal neutron...
Image
Published: 01 January 1986
Fig. 4 Time-of-flight single-crystal diffractometer at a pulsed neutron source. Detector is usually fixed at 90° 2θ, and diffraction is recorded in Laue's geometry. The sample (a single crystal) is positioned by Eulerian angle motions. More
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... stresses single crystal orientations temperature effects threshold sensitivity X-ray diffraction X-ray diffractometer X-RAY DIFFRACTION (XRD) is the most extensively used method for identifying and characterizing various aspects of metals related to the arrangements and spacings of their atoms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006643
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article describes the methods of X-ray diffraction analysis, the types of information that can be obtained, and its interpretation. The discussion covers the basic theories of X-rays and various types of diffraction experiments, namely single-crystal methods for polychromatic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
..., and gases Determination of long-range order in amorphous Estimated Analysis Time materials X-ray or neutron diffraction data can be collected in Examples of Applications several days with any powder or single-crystal diffractometer Structural ordering in amorphous carbon Coordination numbers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... emission spectroscopy, high-temperature combustion, and inert gas fusion. This is followed by a section on techniques for determining the atomic structure of crystals, namely X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, and electron diffraction. Types of electron microscopies most commonly used...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
.... It also describes the crystalline nature of certain materials and how the geometry of a unit cell, and hence crystal lattice, affects the direction and intensity of diffracted x-ray beams. The article concludes with several application examples involving measurements on single and polycrystalline...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article discusses the techniques and applications of synchrotron x-ray diffraction, providing information on x-ray generation, monochromation, and crystallography. X-ray diffraction techniques covered include single-crystal and powder diffraction. Some of the factors involved...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0005692
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... chromatography. An area of high- charge of an ion. imposed on the background of a single- performance liquid chromatography that crystal electron-diffraction pattern caused uses ion exchange resins to separate vari- irradiance (of a receiver). The radiant by diffraction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article provides a detailed account of the concepts of single-crystal x-ray diffraction (XRD). It begins with a historical review of XRD methods, followed by a description of the various factors involved in crystal symmetry. The article then focuses on the phase problem in x-ray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... and suitable for imaging single crystals of large cross section with thickness ranging from hundreds of micrometers to several millimeters. Different imperfections are identified through interpretation of contrast using well-established kinematical and dynamical theories of x-ray diffraction. The capability...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... range of reflections. In recent years, significant progress has been made in extending conventional analysis of neutron-scattering data to simultaneously obtain information on texture, crystal structure, elastic strains, and grain size ( Ref 10 ). Thus, neutron diffraction proves to be useful...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006748
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... Contrast variations seen chromatography, and liquid chromatography. under which a crystal will diffract electro- in secondary electron images generated by cluster ion guns. Ion guns that emit a cluster magnetic radiation. Bragg s law reads nl = scanning electron microscopy or focused of atomic ions instead...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003744
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of individual crystallites. Using x-rays, Laue diffraction measurements can be made on single crystals to determine the orientation. This technique is usually restricted to large single crystals and is not practical for texture measurement. On the other hand, electron diffraction measurements generally give...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... powders as well as single crystals. A comparison of transmission Laue diffraction patterns for single-crystal versus 5 μm powder α-Al 2 O 3 (corundum) is shown in Fig. 1 . Fig. 1 Transmission Laue diffraction patterns for (a) single-crystal and (b) polycrystalline powder α-Al 2 O 3 (Mo α...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... is typically investigated by diffraction. The most common approaches for single crystals are XRD and electron diffraction, though neutron diffraction can also be used for this purpose. Single crystals have a three-dimensional (3D) diffraction pattern, so the appearance of a Bragg peak depends on both the θ-2θ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005418
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract Self-consistent models are a particular class of models in continuum micromechanics, that is, the field concerned with making predictions of the properties and evolution of aggregates whose single-crystal deformation behavior is known. This article provides information...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... and neutron diffraction methods calculate the residual stress from the elastic strain measured in the crystal lattice without altering the part. Mechanical methods calculate the residual stress from the change in strain relaxed (or dimensional change) caused by sectioning, slitting, drilling, or trepanning...