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single-crystal neutron diffraction

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... describes the instrumentation required for, and advancements made in, neutron powder diffraction. The article further explains the texture and residual stress (macrostresses and microstresses) problems that are analyzed using the neutron powder diffraction method. It also outlines the single-crystal neutron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article provides a brief introduction to neutron diffraction as well as its state-of-the-art capabilities. The discussion covers the general principles of the neutron, neutron-scattering theory, generation of neutrons, types of incident radiation, and purposes of single-crystal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... double Bragg scattering. That is, the incident beam is diffracted by a crystalline grain, and the diffracted beam is then rediffracted by a second crystal. This problem can be eliminated by using SANS because of the longer wavelengths of the neutron beam (0.8 to 1.0 nm). Small-angle x-ray scattering has...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... stresses single crystal orientations temperature effects threshold sensitivity X-ray diffraction X-ray diffractometer X-RAY DIFFRACTION (XRD) is the most extensively used method for identifying and characterizing various aspects of metals related to the arrangements and spacings of their atoms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006643
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article describes the methods of X-ray diffraction analysis, the types of information that can be obtained, and its interpretation. The discussion covers the basic theories of X-rays and various types of diffraction experiments, namely single-crystal methods for polychromatic and...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... also describes the crystalline nature of certain materials and how the geometry of a unit cell, and hence crystal lattice, affects the direction and intensity of diffracted x-ray beams. The article concludes with several application examples involving measurements on single and polycrystalline...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article discusses the techniques and applications of synchrotron x-ray diffraction, providing information on x-ray generation, monochromation, and crystallography. X-ray diffraction techniques covered include single-crystal and powder diffraction. Some of the factors involved in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... associated stress is calculated. X-ray and neutron diffraction methods calculate the residual stress from the elastic strain measured in the crystal lattice without altering the part. Mechanical methods calculate the residual stress from the change in strain relaxed (or dimensional change) caused by...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...) ,” International Centre for Diffraction Data, Newtown Square, PA, 2018 , http://www.icdd.com 3. “ NIST Crystal Data ,” National Institute of Standards and Technology, ftp://ftp.ncnr.nist.gov/pub/cryst/powdersuite/crystaldata.html 4. Friedrich W. , Knipping P. , and Laue M.V. , Ann...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... , Crystals 2018 , p 8 , 212 10.3390/cryst8050212 65. Warren B.E. , X-Ray Diffraction , Addison-Wesley , 1969 66. Langford J.I. , A Rapid Method for Analyzing the Breadths of Diffraction and Spectral Lines Using the Voigt Function , J. Appl. Crystallogr. , Vol 11 , 1978...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... steel using (a) elliptical fit and (b) linear fit for ψ > 0 and ψ < 0 With recent advances in equipment speed, the full XRD peak profile can be obtained quickly and easily. When using instrumentation having single-channel detectors, the full diffraction profile should always be collected...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... progress has been made in extending conventional analysis of neutron-scattering data to simultaneously obtain information on texture, crystal structure, elastic strains, and grain size ( Ref 10 ). Thus, neutron diffraction proves to be useful (especially compared to x-rays) for large specimens, cases...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005424
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... development and when new applications emerge. Experiments involving in situ loading of specimens in facilities capable of x-ray and neutron diffraction measurements provide data at the scale of crystals. Elastic (lattice) strains can be inferred from shifts in diffraction peaks under changes in the local...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... emission spectroscopy, high-temperature combustion, and inert gas fusion. This is followed by a section on techniques for determining the atomic structure of crystals, namely X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, and electron diffraction. Types of electron microscopies most commonly used for...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... synchrotron sources enable collection of data in minutes. Collection of electron-diffraction data requires seconds to minutes. Diffraction patterns suitable for RDF analysis can be obtained with any diffractometer (powder or single crystal) that is equipped with a source producing radiation of about 0.7 Å...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003329
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
..., the diffraction methods, x-ray and neutron, measure an actual crystal dimension, and this dimension can be related to the magnitude and direction of the stress that the metal is subject to, whether that stress is residual or applied. Subsequently in this section, the following methods of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... residual strains in welded joints use a variety of inputs, including x-rays, neutrons, magnetic signals, and ultrasonic waves. Each of these inputs can induce different outputs, depending on the residual strains in the welded joint area, but also depending on other parameters, such as the crystal structure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005418
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... approach is usually preferred. Often data will be symmetrized during the ODF fitting process in line with the known sample and crystal symmetry and partial, mutually consistent pole figures then plotted, for example, quadrants for fourfold sample symmetry. Neutron diffraction may also be used for texture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article introduces various techniques commonly used in the characterization of semiconductors, namely single-crystal, polycrystalline, amorphous, oxide, organic, and low-dimensional semiconductors and semiconductor devices. The discussion covers material classification...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract This article provides crystallographic and engineering data for single oxide ceramics, zirconia, silicates, mullite, spinels, perovskites, borides, carbides, silicon carbide, boron carbide, tungsten carbide, silicon-nitride ceramics, diamond, and graphite. It includes data on crystal...