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single-crystal cleavage models

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... concepts. bending brittle fracture compression failure deformation ductile crack nucleation ductile fracture ductility fractography manufacturing imperfections metals microvoid coalescence notched specimen plastic flow root cause failure analysis single-crystal cleavage models specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... (Schmid’s law). Single crystals could be made to extensively twin rather easily. Today (2020), Sohnke’s law is no longer assumed to be valid (although a normal stress facilitates cleavage), and no critical shear-stress law based on external loading has been accepted for the onset of twinning deformation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... on fracture surface. See text for discussion. Source: Ref 9 Totally brittle fracture in metals at the microscopic level (ideal cleavage or pure cleavage) occurs only under certain well-defined conditions (primarily when the component is in single-crystal form and has a limited number of slip systems...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by dimpled fracture surface for ductile TG fractures ( Fig. 9 ) and the distinctive river lines of cleavage for brittle cracking ( Fig. 10 ). The occurrence and appearances of these TG cracking mechanisms are influenced by crystal structure, microstructure, loading rate, and temperature, as briefly discussed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... no alloying constituents (and may be single crystals or polycrystalline), while structurally useful materials generally contain alloying constituents for strengthening and may be precipitation hardening, such as many of the aluminum alloys, but may also contain larger second-phase particles. Structural metals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... plane. Cleavage fracture is a brittle mechanism; however, large-scale plastic flow and ductile crack growth can take place before the advent of cleavage. Cleavage takes place along the lowest-packing-density planes of a crystal because fewer bonds need to be broken and the spacing between planes...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... are from cleaved GaAs, producing a (110) surface. However, cleavage is limited to a few crystals and a few surfaces. Samples not cleaved in vacuum must be cut from a single crystal, polished, and oriented carefully to the desired surface using a Laue diffraction camera. Standard polishing procedures...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
..., such as that caused by cleavage steps, leads to shadowing, as illustrated in the topographs of a magnesium oxide (MgO) single crystal shown in Fig. 9 , which also displays the characteristic features of a hardness impression. Fig. 8 Camera for Berg-Barrett topography. Sample is mounted on a tilting stage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... be determined from model calculations to fit intensity-versus-energy measurements of several diffracted beams. The density of steps on a single-crystal surface can be determined by varying the diffraction conditions such that the amplitudes of electrons scattered from terraces separated by a step interfere...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003254
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
..., materials can be used as single crystals where an entire component is fabricated with one spatial orientation repeating throughout. More often than not, however, engineering materials usually contain many crystals, or grains, as shown in Fig. 3 . Depending on the composition and thermomechanical processing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... crack propagation data. GS, grain size Fig. 16 Crystallographic cracking along the {111} and {100} planes of the single-crystal nickel-base alloy designated as N4. Note the less crystallographic nature of the fracture on (001). Source: Ref 46 Fig. 17 The effect of temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001102
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... and metallurgical properties, material processing and fabrication, structural applications, mechanical behavior, environmental embrittlement, alloying effects, and crystal structure of aluminides of nickel, iron, titanium, and silicides. It describes the cleavage and intergranular fracture in trialuminides...
Book Chapter

By Bruce Craig
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003634
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...Intermetallic compounds embrittled by moisture or hydrogen at ambient temperature Table 3 Intermetallic compounds embrittled by moisture or hydrogen at ambient temperature Alloy Agent Crystal structure (a) Ni 3 (Al,Ti) single crystal Moisture L1 2 Ni 3 Al + B Moisture L1 2...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... fracture morphology are influenced by various material factors from the atomic level to the bulk material level. The inherent macroscopic ductility of crystalline materials, for example, depends on factors such as the specific crystal lattice that is present, the presence of foreign atoms in the lattice...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., and creep. In addition, transgranular cracks also can, at some point, follow a grain-boundary path for short distances under certain circumstances. For example, during the process of cleavage (elastic) fracture, the fracture crosses a grain on a particular crystal plane, but it can progress further along...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003058
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... crystals and in polycrystalline materials at the microscopic level, strong cleavage tendencies also play a role, particularly in the direction of propagation. Glass Single Crystals Polycrystalline Ceramics The key to understanding strength and failure of test specimens and manufactured parts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003635
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... electron micrograph (b) showing a cleavage fracture surface produced by cracking a zinc single crystal in liquid mercury Fig. 11 Crack growth rate versus stress-intensity factor for brass in liquid mercury at various temperatures under load and displacement control conditions Fig. 12...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003633
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... factors affect transgranular SCC, for example, crystal structure, anisotropy, grain size and shape, dislocation density and geometry, yield strength, composition, stacking fault energy, ordering, and phase composition. Some of these factors also affect intergranular SCC, as covered in the section...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... embrittlement, and creep. In addition, transgranular cracks also can, at some point, follow a grain-boundary path for short distances under certain circumstances. For example, during the process of cleavage (elastic) fracture, the fracture crosses a grain on a particular crystal plane, but it can progress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... hydrogen sintering, vacuum annealing, and quenching into a single energy- and time-efficient cycle, though this is uncommon in commercial practice. Tungsten, like iron in the ferritic state, possesses a BCC crystal structure and exhibits a similar susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement...